The Particle も V: Adverb Intensifier「も」による副詞の取り立て形

第207課: The Particle も V: Adverb Intensifier

The degree to which the particle も functions as an intensifier is remarkable. In the fourth installation of our coverage on も, we learned a great deal about its relationship with the 連用形 of verbs and with supplementary verbs, but we have yet to take a critical look at how it functions with adverbs. 

Throughout our journey with Japanese grammar, we have seen plenty of examples of も used with adverbial phrases. A great deal of these come about from its role in negative sentences. 

i. いつそばにいてくれてありがとう。
Thank you for always being by my side.

ii. ちっと変わらないだろう。
It/things won’t change a bit. 

While much of this lesson will be review in principle, you will get an invaluable chance at looking at phrases that you might otherwise overlook. 

Intensifying こそあど-Derived Adverbs

A “demonstrative” is a word that specifies distance (spatially and/or temporally). These words are colloquially known as こそあど in Japanese as there are four series which comprise the overwhelming majority of said words.  All demonstratives can be ‘intensified’ with the particle も. 

The chart below lists the primary demonstratives present in Modern Japanese according to their part of speech, purpose, and distance in relation to the speaker/listener. 

The categories listed can be broadly viewed as such. 

。近称 (コ系) are demonstratives regarding the speaker’s proximity. Nominal examples tend to be used as first-person pronouns, but at times they may still refer to third-person entities within the speaker’s sphere of influence. 
・中称 are demonstratives regarding the listener’s proximity. Nominal examples tend to be used as second-person pronouns but also third-person entities within the listener’s sphere of influence. 
・遠称 are demonstratives regarding something outside the proximity of the speaker and listener. Nominal examples often function as second and/or third-person pronouns depending on the distance in the relationship implied. 
・不定称 are indeterminate demonstratives regarding unspecific entities. Nominal examples function like pronouns in the same way as their English counterparts. 

As none of these words should be new to you, English translations will not be given, especially given how varied their interpretations are depending on context. 

Part of Speech 品詞 近称コ系+も 中称ソ系+も 遠称ア系+も 不定称ド系+も
Noun (Things 事物) これも それも あれも どれも
 Noun (Place 場所) ここも そこも あそこも どこも
(Direction/Person 方角・人)
 こなたもこちらもこっちも そなたもそちらもそっちも あなたも※あちらもあっちも どなたもどちらもどっちも
 Noun (Person/Thing 人・物) こいつも そいつも あいつも どいつも
 Adverb こうも そうも ああも どうも
Adj. Noun Derived Adverb  こんなにも そんなにも あんなにも どんなにも△

※あなた once meant “over there/far away” but only means “you” in Modern Japanese, but because it is still an  ア系 demonstrative, this is the deciding factor as to why it is generally not a polite word as it originally referred to people of importance outside one’s inner circle. 

△: どんなにも is not nearly as common as the rest of the こそあど phrases in its series. When it is used, though, も is used as an adverb intensifier, and the same goes for こんなにも, そんなにも, and あんなにも. However, it is far more common to see どんなに Verb + ~ても/[る・た]としても, which itself is an extension of this grammar. 

How も interacts with these こそあど expressions is very predictable. If it follows a noun, you can expect it to mean “too/also” to mark inclusivity. If it follows an adverb, it functions as an intensifier.  

1. ナマケモノはなぜあんなに動きが遅いのか?
Why is it that sloths are so terribly slow?

2. 口先だけの優しさより君に出会えた事の方がどんなに意味があるかを、心から君に伝えたい。
More than just lip-service kindness, I want to tell you from the bottom of my heart how much more meaning there is to how I was able to meet you. 

3. お医者さんにこんなに親切にして頂いたのは初めてで本当に感動しました。
I was really impressed as it was my first time to have a doctor treat me so kindly like this.

4. コカインはそんなに中毒性が高いのか?

Is cocaine that highly addictive? 

5. どこおかしいとは感じません。
I don’t sense anything strange about it.

6. 休日はどうしてこう短いんだ。
Why must holidays be this short?

7. どんなに願って時間は戻ってこない。
No matter how much you wish, time never comes back.

8. 結婚して母になると、ああ変わってしまうのでしょうか?
Do you really change that much once you marry and become a mother?

9. そこのお前もアホ、あいつアホ。
You, there, you’re stupid, and so is that guy.

10. そちらご自愛ください。
Please take care of yourself too. 

The grammar pattern XもYも often creates set phrases with こそあど. Although other こそあど phrases are constructed similarly to the ones mentioned below, we will only be looking at those made with も. 

あれもこれも means “this and that” (lit. “that and this”). The tone is different than saying “this and also that” in the sense that the speaker is likely fretting/complaining over various matters. 

11. あれもこれもしたいのに結局何もできない。
Even though I want to do this and that, I ultimately can’t do anything.

12. え、これもスパイス?ということは、あれもスパイスなの?
Whoa, this is a spice too? So, does that mean that’s also a spice?

Grammar Note: Ex. 9 is an example of how the ordering of こそあど is intrinsically ordered from farthest out to closest, but by addressing things out of the set order, the tone and overall context will be very different from situations seen in Ex. 8. 

Grammar Note: Occasionally, あれもこれも  may be seen exaggerated with the addition of どれも and/or それも tacked to the end as they behave as afterthoughts to the set phrase. 

どれもこれも is very similar to  あれもこれもbut translates as “each and every” and is understood to be a more emphatic version of どれも. 

13. どれもこれもコロナ後遺症なわけ?
So, each and everything is an after-effect of COVID? 

どこもかしこも, also seen as どこもかも, means ” all over the place.” Although Japanese demonstratives are collectively referred to as こそあど, this name does not include another series of demonstratives that exist which start with か. Written in Kanji as 彼, demonstratives created with it would refer to distant, vague entities. かしこ is the distance form. When か is used instead of かしこ in this expression, it simply emphasizes the ambiguity of the phrase itself 

14. どももかしこも獣ばかりだ。
There are beasts every which way.

15. どこもかも傷だらけだ。
(He) is covered everywhere with wounds.

どいつもこいつも means “every last one of them” either in reference to people or things in a rather indignant tone. When in reference to people, you may encounter this phrase expressed less crudely as どちらもこちらも or どなたもこなたも, but neither of these compare to how frequently どいつもこいつも is used. 

16. どいつもこいつも頼りにならないな‼️
Every last one of them is unreliable!!

Some expressions above have noticeable changes in meaning when も is attached due to its emphasizing nature. The best example of this is どうも. どうも has several distinct nuances. At times, it is identical to どうしても・どうやっても as どう, どうして, and どうやって share the meaning of “how.” It can also mean “somehow” in the sense that the speaker can’t quite pinpoint what’s up. It may also mean “absolutely” in which it is heavily used with expressions of gratitude, apology, and greetings, in which cases translations such as “thanks,” “very much,” become appropriate.

17. 明日はどうも雨になりそうだね。
It seems like it’ll be raining tomorrow no matter what.

18. どうも覚えられないわ。
I just can’t seem to remember it.

19. どうもご苦労さまでした。
Thank you very much for your hard work.

Intensifying Interrogative-Derived Adverbs

Interrogatives are question words. In Japanese, these words function as adverbial pronouns. Meaning, depending on the grammatical context, they may either function as either nouns or adverbs. The same dynamic applies when も attaches to an interrogative. To what degree, though, an “Interrogative + も” phrase can function as a standalone noun and be modified by case particles is a rather complicated matter. 

First, let’s familiarize ourselves with the most important interrogatives found in Modern Japanese paired with も once more and how they translate in affirmative and negative contexts. 

 Base Interrogative +も Affirmative Negative
いつ (When) いつも Always/Usual(ly) n/a
 どこ (Where) どこも Anywhere※ Nowhere
 誰・どなた (Who) 誰も・どなたもAnyone/Everyone No one/nobody
 何 (What) 何も(かも) Everything※ Nothing
 どれ・どちら・どっち (Which) どれも・どちらも・どっちも Any of themEither ~both None of them/Neither
 どう (How) どうも Somehow/absolutely No matter how
 いかに (How) いかにも Absolutely/truly n/a

※Both どこも and 何も are not used in affirmative contexts unless if they are followed by かも. The か in this construction is not the particle か but the same 彼 as we saw earlier. 
※誰も, どれも, and 何もかも allow the case particle が to follow them, but other case particles do not follow suit. 

All of these words are primarily used as adverbs. Some, however, may function as nouns in varying but limited capacities.  

20. ロシア経済が無傷で逃げ切れると誰もが信じているわけではない。
It is not that case that everyone believes that the Russian economy will be completely able to run away (from the situation) without injury.

Grammar Note: In conversation, 誰でも is preferred over 誰もが as the former provides a softer tone.

Grammar Note: The use of 誰も as a noun is only truly seen with the particle が, and even when it is used, it is grammatically unnecessary. Some speakers are beginning to use 誰もに in the same sense as 皆に but usually with a negative undertone. Even so, 誰にも is still the more natural choice. 

21. 誰もに否定されて救いも無くて・・・
Repudiated by everyone and with no relief to be had……
From the lyrics of 立ち入り禁止 by まふまふ.

Grammar Note: 誰もに is starting to become grammatically acceptable as is seen by this line, but in any situation where it might be used, 誰にも remains the most natural phrasing. 

22. いつもと違うなあ。

This is different than usually. 

23. いつものメンバーは全員います。 
All of the usual members are here.

24. いつもは野菜だけしか食べないけど、時々肉も食べます。
I always only eat vegetables, but I occasionally also eat meat.

Grammar Note: いつも is on its way to becoming fully lexicalized as a fully functional adverbial noun as it always the adverbial particle は to follow it as well as the particle の. 

25. どれもこれもが宝物。
Each and everyone of them is treasure.

26. なにもかもに疲れてしまう。
To be tired by anything and everything.

Grammar Note: 何もかも may also take the particle に. 

27. いかにも悲しげな顔をして何を思っているんだろう。
I wonder what (he) is thinking with that terribly sad face.

The use of the particle も after “何 + counter phrase + も” is an extension of も adverbial phrases behaving as nouns. In fact, these phrases frequently have the case particles が and の follow them. However, the counter phrase itself must refer to a physical entity for this structure to be natural.

28. 何頭もが同じ場所にふんをしている。
Several of them are defecating in the same place.

29. 何千人もが誘拐されている。
Several thousand of them have been abducted.

Intensifying Adjective/Adjectival Noun-Derived Adverbs

The particle も may also find itself used as an adverb intensifier when placed after the 連用形 of adjectives and adjectival nouns.

形容詞の連用形+も 形容動詞の連用形+も
語幹+く+も例)辛い → 辛くも語幹+に+も例)不思議(な) → 不思議にも

This is not exactly the same as XもYもbeing used in conjunction with the 連用形 of adjectives/adjectival nouns. Although, in principle, they are of the same vein, it’s best to view the following phrases as standalone adverbs whose emphatic forms are created with the particle も.

30. 一般にも広く普及した技術だ。
It is a technology that has spread widely through the general public. 

31. 無理にも勧めておりません。
I am not advising it unjustifiably. 

32. 仮にも人を傷つけるようなことをしてはいけない。
You mustn’t ever do anything to hurt someone not even for a moment.

33. 彼の手は不思議にも爬虫類の皮膚のように湿っていた。
His hands were strangely damp like the skin of a reptile. 
From 歯車 by 芥川龍之介. 

34.  まだ深くも考えない歳であるけれども・・・
Though he still wasn’t at the age to think too deeply…

35. 辛くも大怪我を免れた。
I narrowly managed to avoid getting majorly injured.

36. よくもそんなに喋ることがありましたね。
It’s amazing that he had so much to talk about!

37. 早くも症状が出始めた。
Symptoms have already quickly begun to appear.

38. いまびの仕上がりは早くも数年はかかるでしょう。
IMABI’s completion, at the earliest, will likely take several years.

Grammar Note: 早くも may either refer to something has occurred quicker than expected or mean “at the earliest” for an event that has yet to occur. In the latter sense, it is interchangeable with 早くても.

Intensifying と-Adverbs

The particle も’s role as an adverb intensifier doesn’t end with adjective-based adverbs. The same goes for those that are created with the particle と.

39. お急ぎの節は是非ともご利用下さい。(書き言葉)
By all means, please use (this) whenever you are in a hurry.

40. 押しても引いてもびくりともしないよ。
It doesn’t budge a bit even if you push or pull on it.

41. 彼は褒められてもにこりともしない。

He doesn’t even wince even if he is complimented. 

42. 道のはっきり(と)もしない灌木だらけの山を登る。
To climb up a mountain covered in brush to the point one can’t make out the paths.

Intensifying Pure/Miscellaneous Adverbs

Aside from the categories of adverbs we’ve looked at thus far, there is still a slew of ways to make adverbs in Japanese. Some are made with the particle て, some are even made from duplicating a verb, and there are also those that are naturally adverbs which do not derive from other parts of speech. 

43. あまりにもひどい仕打ちだった。
It was far too horrible of a punishment.

44. またしても航空事故という悲劇が起こった。
Yet another airline accident tragedy has occurred. 

45. それ、さっきも言っただろう?
Didn’t I just say that earlier?

46. 花びらが幾重にも重なっていった。
The petals went on to piling up layer upon layer.

47. 少しも寒くないわ。
I’m not the least bit cold.

48.  何分にも、初めての職務でござい ますので、多くの皆様のご指導、またご協力をいただきながら学校経営に努めて参りたいと思います。
At any rate, as this is my first professional position, I intend to strive my best in managing the school while receiving everyone’s guidance and cooperation. 

49. うまくいくとはゆめにも考えていなかった。
I had never thought at all that it would go well.

50.  祖国のために心ならずも戦場に赴き命を落とさなければならなかった方々に対し、心からの哀悼、敬意及び感謝の気持ちを捧げたいと思います。
I would like to show my heartfelt condolences, respect, and appreciation for those who had to go to the battlefield against their will for their country and had to lose their lives consequently. 

51. 毫も疑わない。
I don’t doubt it one bit.

52. 彼は商業においても世にも稀な才能を発揮している。
He is displaying talent rarely ever seen in business. 

53. しかも毎度あんな破廉恥を手を使いやがるんだよ!
Moreover, you always resort to those sort of shameful, underhanded tricks!

54. あの若さで死んだのは返す返すも残念だ。
His dying at that young age is tremendously disappointing.