第48課: The Particle Ni に II
There is a lot to learn about the particle に. So, instead of having to go through it all in one lesson, this lesson will go over the rest of the basic information that you should know about it.
More on the Case Particle に
“AをBにする” is “to make/have A be a B way”. You can alternatively see the particle と instead, but the difference between the two is that に shows the endpoint of a duration of some sort whereas と shows the content/substance of a result. This may seem arbitrary, but it will become more important later on.
“AをB｛に・と｝する” may also show what someone deems as or decides on. Using と sounds more formal and rigid due to its aforementioned quality. This is most prominently seen in こと｛に・と｝する.
This pattern also applies to the adverbial forms of adjectives. For 形容詞, you would alternatively use ～くする, not ～くにする.
To make the murder case into a novel.
To make the music louder.
He made her happy.
My younger sister made the/her room clean.
To have a kid become a manga artist.
To use 200 million yen as ransom money.
To do pictures as a hobby.
To have sushi for lunch.
Please change these pounds into yen.
To sleep with a rock as a pillow.
Grammar Note: There are instances in Japanese where certain adjective れんようけい do become functional nouns such as 近く (vicinity) and 遠く (afar). This, though, combined with this phrase, which is possible, would not cause any structural problems given the definitions.
Curriculum Note: There will be more things discussed about とする over time.
- Shows the standard of action, condition, or state. Ex. “to lack in creativity”.
The population has increased three times in the last four years.
Word Note: 人口 is either 多い or 少ない, not 大きい or 小さい. Although the last sentence was different, you definitely need to know this.
Staying up late is not good for your health.
14. 僕は一日に3回散歩に行く。 (Guy speech)
I go on a walk three times a day.
My house is close to the train station.
I won the match!
Word Note: 勝つ should only be used to mean “to win” when talking about games of some sort. If you want to say, “to win the lottery”, you need to say something like “くじがあたる”.
- Shows what brings about some sort of measure, feelings, situation, or work. It is “by” as in “to be…by…” and the “from” in receiving.
I frequently get angry at Hiroshi.
I sympathize with you.
I received some spending money from my grandmother.
- Shows direct time. Although true, it is not used after 今日, 去年, 翌年, 来月, etc.
School begins every morning at 8:15.
The meeting will end at 2.
I stayed in Osaka at the end of May.
- Creates pairs with a deep connection. It’s often in set phrases. This is also actually used in ordering items as well.
A bridegroom and a bride.
A demon and a metal club. 25. 多勢に無勢。
To be outnumbered.
Definition Note: 多勢 ＝ ”a lot of people”; 無勢 ＝ “few people”.
- Verb stem + に + same verb creates a special emphasis. The base form of this pattern may be in the non-past form, but in actual practice, the final verb is basically always in the past tense. The grammar pattern itself is usually used in the written language.
To wait and wait.
27a. 赤ちゃんは泣きに泣いた。（Slightly literary)
27b. 赤ちゃんは大泣きしていた。 (More natural)
The baby cried and cried.