第402課: 交ぜ書き

With the introduction of the 当用漢字表 in 1946, all Kanji outside the list that existed in multiple-character compounds were no longer used in official documents or the media. For instance, in the word 伴侶 meaning “companion,” the second Kanji was not listed, and so spelling it as 伴りょ became not only acceptable but expected. This practice of writing individual words in such mixed fashion is known as 交ぜ書き. 

意味 本来 交ぜ書き 意味 本来 交ぜ書き
Capturing 拿捕 だほSupplementation 補填 補てん
 Abduction 拉致 ら致  Meteorite 隕石 いん石
  Soap 石鹸 石けん  Bankruptcy 破綻 破たん
 Dermatology 皮膚科 皮ふ科  Prescription 処方箋 処方せん
 Curbing 牽制 けん制 Dislocation 脱臼 脱きゅう
 Revolt 蜂起 ほう起 Leader 領袖 領しゅう
 Detour迂回 う回 False charge 冤罪 えん罪
 Sense of fatigue 倦怠感 けん怠感 Saliva 唾液 だ液
 Comet 彗星 すい星 Simile 比喩 比ゆ
  Mystery/Secret  秘訣 秘けつ  Disappearance 失踪 失そう

※For students studying for the higher levels of the 漢検, 交ぜ書き is not implemented throughout any of the lessons in いまび with exception to this lesson for the purpose of discussing the topic at hand.

Use in Current Age Documents 現代の文章における適用

Even into the 21st century, the use of 交ぜ書き in government-level documents and the media is still seen, although its necessity has decreased as the 常用漢字表 has both been expanded and because the list never had control over personal writing or the publications of publicly owned companies. The number of media outlets which refuse to utilize such spellings even in their captions is on the rise, and authors for the most part have been largely in favor of using Furigana rather than resort to 交ぜ書き.

As the use of non-general-use Kanji (表外字) was never restricted, this also allowed for word processors to be programmed with thousands of glyphs anyway, and with the Internet boom and advancements made in phone technology, Kanji recognition is at an all time high. Whereas it might have been difficult to think of rare Kanji that might only appear in one or two words 100 years ago, it’s only a tap or press of a button away nowadays.

Although 交ぜ書き will likely disappear in large part by the next century, examples abound in government issued documentation as well as NHK both on TV and in print. To visualize this, here are some real life examples.

※When teaching children Kanji, it is commonplace to write any Kanji not taught in Kana, resulting in many examples of 交ぜ書き. However, even this is being largely phased out as being less productive as simply adding Furigana to words as units. 

1. 女性に多い子宮がん(→癌)の一種、「子宮体がん(→癌)」の治療の際、がん細胞が残っているかどうかを画像で診断できる検査法を福井大学の医療チームが開発し、治療を終えた女性が今月、出産したと発表しました。
The medical treatment team of the University of Fukui has developed a way to examine whether cancer cells remain with image diagnosis for “cancer of the uterine body,” a kind of uterine cancer prevalent in women.
From NHK on 1/30/17.

2. おたふくかぜはムンプスウイルスが原因の感染症で、主にせきなどによる飛まつ(→飛沫)で感染し、発熱や耳の下の腫れなどを引き起こします。
The mumps is an infectious disease caused by the mumps virus. Infection is mainly spread by droplets from coughing, and (the disease) induces fever and swelling under the ears.
From NHK on 1/29/17.

3. そして、一連の実験中に、脳の中でどのように記憶が作られたのか観察したところ、電気刺激の恐怖の記憶と甘い水の記憶は、それぞれ脳のへんとう体(→扁桃体)と呼ばれる場所で異なる神経細胞の集団に蓄えられましたが、2つの細胞の集団が、一部で重なり合うと、両方の記憶がつながることがわかったということです。
And during a series of experiments, after observing how memories are created inside the brain, memories of fear toward electric stimulus and memories of sweet water were each respectively collected in different neuron masses in the brain called amygdala, but it was found out that where they partially overlap, both sets of memories connect.
From NHK on 1/29/17.

4. 専門家は、ウイルスのまん延(→蔓延)が極めて深刻なレベルにあると警鐘を鳴らしています。
Experts are raising the alarm that the spread of the virus has reached an exceedingly severe level.
From NHK on 1/26/17.

5. グループでは、あらかじめすい臓(→膵臓)ができないよう遺伝子を操作したラットの受精卵にマウスのiPS細胞を入れ、体内にマウスのすい臓(→膵臓)をもつラットを作り出すことに成功しました。
In the group, success was had in creating rats which had mouse pancreases in their bodies by injecting them with mouse iPS cells into fertilized rat eggs, which had the genes operating the (rat) pancreas unfunctional.
From NHK on 1/26/17.

6. 事故を受けて日本バレーボール協会は先月、中垣内次期監督をけん責(→譴責)処分にしています。
In response to the accident, the Japan Volleyball Association censured next-term Coach Nakagai last month.
From NHK on 1/30/17.

7. 和歌山県御坊市の小中学校や幼稚園に通う子ども(→子供)など700人以上が下痢やおう吐(→嘔吐)
In the case of over 700 children attending elementary schools and kindergartens in Gobo City, Wakayama Prefecture complaining of symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting, it has been uncovered in a prefectural investigation that the norovirus has been detected in the children and students’ stools. 
From NHK on 1/28/17.

8. 27日の判決で札幌地方裁判所の田尻克已裁判長は、「凶器を準備して襲ったうえ被害者が倒れても執よう(→執拗)に暴行を加え、残虐で計画的な犯行だ」と指摘してきしました。
In a verdict on the 27th, Judge Katsumi Tajiri of the Sapporo District Court has noted, “on top of having prepared a deadly weapon and assaulted the victim, further acts of relentless violence were made even after the victim had collapsed, which is a heartless and deliberate criminal offense.” 

  From NHK on 1/27/17.

9. うつ病(→鬱病)を発症した元社員の男性に違法な長時間労働をさせたとして書類送検された大手電機メーカー、三菱電機と当時の上司について、横浜地方検察庁は嫌疑不十分で不起訴にしました。
Regarding the charges filed against the major electrical manufacturer Mitsubishi Electric for a boss at the time allegedly illegally forcing a former male employee to work long hours developing depression, the Yokohama District Public Prosecutor’s Office has decided not to prosecute due to insufficient evidence.

From NHK on 1/27/17.

10. 会場には、犠牲者19人分のろうそくが並べられ、はじめに全員で黙とう(→黙禱)を捧げ、追悼しました。
At the venue, candles for the 19 victims were arranged and all participants began by showing their respects with a moment of silence.
From NHK on 1/26/17.

11. また、採用試験とは別に、教育委員会の人事に介入し、教育長が依頼を断るとどう喝(→恫喝)したなどと指摘されている点については、持ち込まれた人事上の要望や意見を口頭で伝えたことは認めたものの、人事について指示したり、どう喝(→恫喝)したりした事実はないと主張しました。

Also, as for being remonstrated for interfering with the HR of the Board of Education and blackmailing (them) by stating that the superintendent would deny (their) request which was apart from the employment exam issue, (he) has claimed there is no validity behind blackmailing over directives to HR while also admitting to have orally stating requests and opinions regarding HR that had been proposed.

漢字 Note: どう喝 = 恫喝.  

12. この中で、民間議員は、世界の経済政策の不確実性によって、日本経済も大きな影響を受ける可能性があるとして、自由貿易体制の維持・強化に貢献するとともに、変動に動じない強じん(→強靭)な国内経済を構築するため、引き続き賃金の上昇や働き方改革に取り組むよう提言しました。
Amidst this, congressmen who hold civilian occupations have recommended revolutionizing work-style reform and continued wage increases in order to creature a tough, domestic economy that isn’t perturbed by fluctuations while also contributing to the strengthening and maintaining of free trade policies, given the possibility that the uncertainty in the world market may greatly affect the Japanese economy.

From NHK on 1/25/17.

13. イージス巡洋艦はタグボートにえい航(→曳航)され、基地に戻ったということで、けが人(→怪我人)はいませんでした。
The Aegis cruiser was towed by a tug boat and returned to the base; no one was injured.
From NHK on 2/1/17.  

14. 歩行者・自転車の方は、う回路(→う回路)として岩崎橋をご利用ください。
Pedestrians and cyclists, please use Iwasaki Bridge as your detour route.

15. えん罪(→冤罪)を晴らしてほしい。
I want my false charge(s) cleared.