Reduplication: Nouns

第282課: Reduplication: Nouns

The reduplication of words (jōgo 畳語) is a phenomenon found in Japanese in which the same morpheme (unit of meaning) is doubled to create a new yet related word. This is seen virtually across all parts of speech in Japanese to varying degrees. Before you think this is only limited to some form of slang, it must be noted that most words created by doubling something are actually quite important.

When a noun is doubled, the resultant phrase is a plural phrase denoting a large variety of said noun. Essentially, only nouns that have been conceptualized by the Japanese as something that is both numerous and highly varied may be pluralized in this way.

i. やま

ii. 山々やまやま
 Many mountains

As simple as this may seem, it is important to note that only a handful of these phrases are frequently used, and it isn’t even the case that all related words of a particular variety can be pluralized in this way. For instance, although yamayama 山々 is used, kawagawa 川々 (rivers) hardly ever used, and okaoka 岡々 (hills) is basically unheard of.  

One thing to take especial note of regarding doubling nouns is that a phonological phenomenon called rendaku 連濁 affects the pronunciation of the repeated element. Rendaku 連濁 is when the second part of a compound has its initial consonant voiced if it isn’t already.

iii. くに

iv. 国々くにぐに
 Many countries

As far as spelling is concerned, rather than repeating the same character, the ditto character 々 is used instead. However, when a word of more than one character is repeated, the whole word is usually repeated instead of using the ditto mark.

v. しまじま
 Many islands

vi. 交代交代こうたいごうたい
 Shift after shift

Unfortunately, instances of these phrases must be learned on a case by case basis, and because these phrases are so closely intertwined into the very conceptualization of core vocabulary, a good handful of the phrases that do exist have quirks that must also be addressed. For starters, we will look at the most common, straightforward instances of noun duplication.


1. 30さんじゅっ国以上こくいじょう人々ひとびと意見いけん調査ちょうさしました。
    Sanjukkakoku ijō no hitobito ni iken wo chōsa shimashita.
    (I/we) have investigated the opinions of (many) people from over thirty nations.

2. 日本にほん山々やまやまたのしみましょう。
     Nihon no yamayama wo tanoshimimashō.
     Enjoy the many mountains of Japan.

3. アフリカの国々くにぐにまでもが中国ちゅうごく依存いそんしている。
     Afurika no kunigunimade mo ga chūgoku ni ison shite iru.
     As far as the nations of Africa are dependent on China.

Reading Note: 依存 may alternatively be pronounced as izon.

4. 古代こだいのギリシャじんは、ゼウスをはじめ、おおくの神々かみがみあがめていたといわれている。
     Kodai no girishajin wa, zeusu wo hajime, ōku no kamigami wo agamete ita to iwarete iru.
     It is said that the ancient Greeks, not only worshiped Zeus, but they also worshiped many other gods.

5. 広大こうだい宇宙うちゅうらばる、かぞれないほどの星々ほしぼし旅立たびだちましょう。
Kōdai na uchū ni chirabaru, kazoekirenai hodo no hoshiboshi e tabidachimashō.
     Let’s embark on exploring the countless stars scattered in our grand universe.

6. ここ数日すうじつ交代交代こうたいごうたいやすみなく作業さぎょうつづけていました。
Koko sūjitsu, kōtaigōtai de yasumi naku sagyō wo tsuzukete imashita.
     For these past few day, I have been doing work without break shift after shift.

7. 南太平洋みなみたいへいよう島々しまじま旅行りょこうしてみたいとおもいます。
Minami Taiheiyō no shimajima ni ryokō shite mitai to omoimasu.
 I’d like to travel the many islands of the South Pacific.

8. 我々われわれはどこからたのか、我々われわれ何者なにものか、我々われわれどこへくのか。
    Wareware wa doko kara kita no ka, wareware wa nanimono ka, wareware wa doko e iku no ka.
    Where did we come from, what are we, and where are we going?

9. あしはこんでくださった方々かたがたまことにありがとうございました。
     Ashi wo hakonde kudasatta katagata, makoto ni arigatō gozaimashita.
     To all those who turned out, (I/we) sincerely thank you.

11. トルコ各地かくち町々まちまちたずねました。 
       Toruko kakuchi no machimachi wo tazunemashita.
       I visited the many towns across Turkey.

12. 換気口かんきこう所々ところどころ設置せっちされている。
       Kankikō ga tokorodokoro ni setchi sarete iru.
    Vents are installed here and there.

13. 街路樹がいろじゅ木々きぎいろづいて綺麗きれいですね。
     Gairoju no kigi ga irozuite kirei desu ne.
   The many roadside trees have turned colors and are lovely.

14. 世界せかい隅々すみずみまで貨物かもつはこぶ。
       Sekai no sumizumi made kamotsu wo hakobu.
       To transport cargo to the corners of the world.

15. 一年いちねんとおして季節きせつ花々はなばな栽培さいばいしています。
       Ichinen wo tōshite kisetsu no hanabana wo saibai shite imasu.
       (I/we) cultivate the various flowers of the seasons throughout the year.

16. かれらはみなそれぞれ意見いけんっています。
      Karera wa mina sorezore no iken wo motte imasu.
      They all each have their own opinions.

17. 学生各々がくせいおのおのたのしみながら日本語にほんご会話力かいわりょくたかめている。
      Gakusei ono’ono ga tanoshiminagara Nihongo no kaiwaryoku wo takamete iru.
     Each and every student is increasing their conversation skills in Japanese while having fun.

Word NoteOno actually comes from an old word meaning “oneself” which is still seen in the word onore 己, which is either used to mean “oneself/itself” or as a derogatory “you,” of all things.

18. 銘々めいめい弁当べんとう持参じさんしてください。
      Meimei ga bento wo jisan shite kudasai.
May each please bring his own bento.

Word NoteOno’ono 各々 and meimei 銘々 are both very similar to sorezore それぞれ. Neither, unlike sorezore それぞれ, are particularly used in the spoken language anymore, but they both only refer to people.

19. アイドルグループの○○の面々めんめん重傷じゅうしょう
   Aidoru gurūpu no marumaruno memmen jūshō!
   Each Member of Pop Group ## Severely Injured!

Word NoteMemmen 面々 is yet another word meaning “each one.” It is occasionally used in the written language; however, it is not suited for polite/honorific speech as the tone it gives is rather indifferent at a respectful level. It also literally means “every direction,” but this meaning is obsolete and would be replaced with phrases like kaku hōmen 各方面.

20. 手作てづくりの品々しなじなそろっている。
      Tezukuri no shinajinaga sorotte iru.
      Varioushandmade goodsare lined up.

21. 風邪かぜ節々ふしぶしいたむのはなぜでしょうか。
       Kaze de fushibushiga itamu no wa naze deshō ka?
       Why do all one’s jointsache with a cold?

22. たでむしき。
 Tade kū mushi mo sukizuki.
Some prefer nettles/every man has his taste.

Phrase Note: This is a set expression which literally means, “There is also a matter of taste even for bugs that eat knotweed.” 

23. つぎ誰々だれだれです。
   Tsugi wa daredare desu.
      Next is so-and-so.

Word Note: In addition to meaning “so-and-so,” this word traditionally has also been used to mean “who” but in the sense of two or more people. This usage, however, has waned and hardly anyone uses it this way anymore.

 Peculiar Examples

As you can see, all the examples thus far utilize simple yet fundamental nouns in the language. The examples to follow are also very simple and important nouns, but their duplicated forms are either not as common or have something odd about them.

24. 皮肉ひにくなことに、群馬県ぐんまけん村々むらむらには、四六時中しろくじじゅうムラムラしている村民そんみんおおいらしい。
Hiniku na koto ni, Gumma-ken no muramura ni wa, shirokujichū muramura shite iru sommin ga ōi rashii.
Ironically, it seems that there are many villagers that are horny around the clock in the villages of Gunma Prefecture.

Word Note: Muramura 村々 would only be used in the written language because it is homophonous with the very common onomatopoeic expression muramura suru ムラムラする, which means “to be horny.” Onomatopoeic expressions, as demonstrated with this mere example, also frequently exhibit duplication.

25. 蝶々ちょうちょうむしなのにきらわれないのはなぜでしょうか。
      Chōchō ga mushi na noni kirawarenai no wa naze deshō ka?
Why is it that butterflies aren’t hated although they’re bugs?

Word NoteChōchō 蝶々 should just mean “(many) butterflies,” but it has ironically become detached from its literal meanings and can also just mean “butterfly.”

26. ったことのない寺々てらでら参拝さんぱいかける。
       Itta koto no nai teraderani sampai ni dekakeru.
       To go out to pay homage to the many templesone has never gone to.

27. 手手てて頂戴ちょうだい
       Otete, chōdai.
       Give me your hand(s)/paw(s).

Word NoteOtete お手手 is a euphemism for “hand(s)/paw(s)” that is used towards children and pets.

The following examples are indicative of when noun duplication would normally not be permissible; however, it is noteworthy that a far larger diversity of nouns can be duplicated in specialized contexts like those seen below.

28. ゆきた。谷々たにだに三月さんがつふかもれた。
       Yuki ga kita. Tanitaniwa sangatsu no yo mo fukaku umoreta.
      The snow came. The valleyswere deeply buried in it past March.
From 岩石の間 by 島崎藤村.

29. わたくしはほかのあな注意ちゅういしてた。そしてそれらの穴々あなあなが、いつのにか次々つぎつぎかためられてっているのをた。
Watakushi wa hoka no ana wo chūi shite mita. Soshite sorera no ana’ana ga, itsu no ma ni ka tsugitsugi ni nurikatamerarete itte iru no wo mita.
I looked cautiously at the other holes, and then I watched as one after another of those holes coated over before I knew it.
From ジガ蜂 by 島木健作.

Word NoteTsugitsugi 次々 is an adverbial phrase meaning “one by one/one after another” by duplicating the noun tsugi 次 meaning “next.”

30. わたししんじるものは、聖書せいしょっているように、そのひとからけるみず川々かわがわながるであろう。
Watashi wo shinjiru mono wa, seisho ga itte iru yō ni, sono hito kara ikeru mizu no kawagawa ga deru de arō.
Whoever believes in me, as Scripture has said, rivers of living water will flow from him.
From John 7:38

Temporal Nouns: Nominal & Adverbial

Although we are focusing on instances of noun duplication, it is important to note that the majority of nouns that are temporal are often used as both nouns and adverbs, and this is no different when they’re duplicated.

31. しあわせな日々ひびごす。
      Shiawase na hibi wo sugosu.
     To live out happy days.

32. 展望台てんぼうだいから四季折々しきおりおりうつくしさを堪能たんのうできます。
      Tembōdai kara shiki oriori no utsukishisa wo tan’nō dekimasu.
      You can enjoy the beauty of the seasons from season to season from the observation deck.

33. 鹿しか折々おりおりかけるが、カモシカはめずらしい。
      Shika mo oriori mikakeru ga, kamoshika wa mezurashii.
     Although I occasionally spot deer as well, wild goats are rare.

34. 時々ときどき、コンロのがつかない。
      Tokidoki, konro no hi ga tsukanai.
     Sometimes, the gas burner doesn’t light.

35. 頭金あたまきんゼロで月々つきづき3さん万円台まんえんだい支払しはらいで購入こうにゅうできます。
      Atamakin zero de tsukizuki samman’en-dai no shiharai de kōnyū dekimasu.
     You can purchase with monthly payments in the 30,000 yen range with zero down payment.

36. 年々ねんねん需要じゅよう増加ぞうかしている。
      Nen’nen, juyō ga zōka shite iru.
      Demand is increasing yearly.

37. 共同きょうどうった土地とちったおかね半々はんはんけたことを後々のちのちめないように書面しょめんのこしたいとおもっています。
Kyōdō de katta tochi wo utta okane wo hanhanni waketa koto wo nochinochi momenai yō ni shomen ni nokoshitai to omotte imasu.
I would like to leave in writing that the money from selling land I hand jointly bought (with someone) was split in halfso that we don’t have a dispute inthe distant future.

38. そのまち人達ひとたち先祖せんぞ代々だいだいがれてきた方言ほうげんみずかほうむったのだ。
Sono machi no hitotachi wa senzo daidai uketsugarete kita hōgen wo mizukara hōmurisatta no da.
The people of that town had buried their dialect, which had been passed down from the ancestors generation to generation, on their own.

Word Note: 代々 may also be read as “yoyo” in far more literary fashion, utilizing the native word for “generation.”

39. 前々まえまえから主張しゅちょうしているようにあきらかに間違まちがっているんです。
      Maemae kara shuchō  shite iru yō ni akiraka ni machigatte iru n desu.
      Just as I have asserted from way before, it’s clearly mistaken/wrong.

40. 先々さきざきのことを考えると不安ふあんになります。
      Sakizakino koto wo kangaeru to fuan ni narimasu.
Whenever I think about what will be way down the line, I get anxious.