第175課: 擬声語 III: 擬態語・擬情語
擬態語 represent states and 擬情語 represent emotion(al states). These are intertwined with each other, and they are often tied to some sort of sound. Just like before, different spellings and nuances based on context are to be expected. However, the best thing that you can do to learn Japanese onomatopoeic expressions is see how they’re being used.
To begin, we will look at a chart of common 擬態語 and 擬情語. Some notes that we have already seen before will be repeated in context of this lesson as reinforcement of what you already know with new material.
|Round and round||ぐるぐる（と）||Firmly; fixedly||ぐっと|
|Resolutely; tightly; firmly; steadily||しっかり（と）||Furiously||ぷんぷん（と）|
|In a mess||めちゃくちゃ||Drenched||びっしょり（と）|
- くたくた: Exhausted, worn down, boiled to a mush, or even wordy.
- いらいら（と）: It may be irritating as in emotions are as in the body.
- すっくり（と）: Being refreshed, clean-cut, straightforward, complete, and even neat.
- しっかり（と）: It can also mean reliable and enough.
- ぷんぷん（と）: It can also refer to a strong smell in a negative fashion.
Part of Speech Note: Some verbs are based off of onomatopoeia. Ex. きらめく (to sparkle/radiate).
Voicing Note: Voiced onomatopoeia often have a more serious or dramatic tone to them versus their very similar non-voiced counterparts. They are often antonymous. For example, さらさら can be smooth but ざらざら is rough.
As you can see, there are some very similar patterns going on. Many onomatopoeic expressions in Japanese are the result of a doubled element(s). We have expressions like こそこそ（と） (stealthily) where double-morae element is doubled. These in particular are subject to having many variants. For instance, you can say こそっと or こっそり instead. Note that the insertion of the っ is prevented when the resulting double consonant is not one that is allowed in Japanese.
Please note that you always have your irregularities. Sometimes different forms have different nuances, although always related. This does not include non-onomatopoeic words with repeating elements. This is really just something you have to mess around with and test the limits of.
A flaring flame
Beg! （To a dog)
A lengthy debate
A dejected face
To be enchanted by music.
To wait in great suspense.
To break into pieces.
To be love-stricken.
To slither about.
My old brother is in a bad mood today.
A glaring sun
Come all the way through the rain.
Sentence Note: 13a infers that you never stopped on the way, and 13b infers that you took the trouble to come that far.
To dry up.
To throb in pain.
Packed; tight; heavy
I got soaked by the rain.
To bob one’s head.
A vague figure.
A well-built man
Your Japanese skills are remarkably improving.
Chewing gum stuck to the bottom of my shoe.
To be slow at doing.
A plump drunkard
For smoke to rise.
To split open.
Thorns are prickly
For one’s back to chill.
To boil out.
He is relatively nice.
Part of Speech Note: まあまあ can also be seen as an interjection meaning “now, now” or “my, my”. Many adverbial phrases have varying parts of speech depending on usage.
The bottle is quite/completely empty.
Have you become quite well already?
I gently hugged his shoulder.
Reading Note: 抱く is either read as だく or いだく. The first shows physical embrace. The latter shows the bearing of thoughts, feelings, etc.
Eating & Drinking
|To gnaw||がりがり（と）かじる||To eat heartily||もりもり（と）食べる|
|To gulp whole||がぶりと飲み込む||To bite into||ぱ（っ）くり（と）食べる|
|To bite fiercely||がぶり（と）かむ|
|To smile||にっこり（と）笑う||To smile||にこにこ（と）笑う|
|To sneer||せせら笑う||To have a broad grin||にた｛っと・りと・にた（と）｝笑う|