More Endings I

第350課: The Endings ~果てる・果たす, ~付ける・付く, ~立てる・立つ, ~尽くす, & ~こなす


The intransitive verb 果てる has the literal meaning of “to come to an end,” and it has long been used as a euphemism to express “to die” in a glorified manner.

1. 義経は、持仏堂に籠り、まず正妻の郷御前と四歳の女子を殺害したのち、自害して果てた。
Yoshitsune confined himself in his Buddha hall, then once he had first killed his first wife Sato Gozen and his four-year-old girl, he died via suicide.

2. その死闘が、いつ果てるともなく討ち入りの日まで続く。
The mortal combat would continue with no end in sight until the day of the raid.

3. 我らは、いつ果てるとも知れない戦いの最中にある。
We are in the middle of a battle that is never-ending.

When used as a supplementary verb, ~果てる describes an action that has been completed to the absolute limit, often marking the end of the agent’s will to do anything else. In doing so, it is used with verbs with negative connotations. More specifically, it is used with verbs that describe the result of some change which is not a favorable end but the end nonetheless. Usually, the verb is an unaccusative intransitive verb, but it can occasionally be used with unergative intransitive verbs and transitive verbs so long as a negative extreme is completed to its end.

4. 頂上に着いたときにはせいこんも尽きてた。
When I had reached the top, I had used up all my energy.

5. その宮殿きゅうでんれ果てている。
The palace has fallen into ruin. 

6. どう対処して良いか分からず問題の処置しょちに困り果てている。
(They) are at a complete loss on dealing with the problem, not knowing how to best cope with it.

7. 変わり果てた姿すがただな。
What a change in appearance for the worse…

8. 忙しくてつかれ果ててしまいました。
I was so busy that I ended up completely exhausting myself.

9. 見下げ果てた奴じゃ!
What a scumbag!

When ~果てる is used with the negative auxiliary ~ぬ, the event described concludes without the crucial aspiration in the speaker’s mind coming through fruition.

10. 見果てぬ夢
An unfulfilled/impossible dream

In older language, ~果てる could be used in affirmative (positive) scenarios, but this is very rare in Modern Japanese. In the event it is used in Modern Japanese, the change identified by the main verb must be absolutely completed.

11. ただ四、五月のうちに、『史記』などいふ書、読み果てたまひてけり。
He ended up completely reading the “Records of the Grand Historian” in just four, five months.
From the 源氏物語.

12. ようやく宇治十帖を読み終え、これで源氏物語はすべて読み果てたことになる。
At last I have finished reading the Ten Uji Chapters, and with that I have completely finished reading all of the Tale of Genji.

13. 曇り果てた二つの眼の奥にそれでも光は宿り続ける。
In those two beyond gloomy eyes, there still remains light inside.

A similar usage which has fallen out of use is ~おおせる, which can be spelled in Kanji as ~果せる・遂せる・了せる・終せる. As indicated by these Kanji, ~おおせる describes an action that has been completely accomplished. Though its usage in the spoken language is extremely limited, it may still be in literature in which it is paired with verbs such as 逃げる (to escape), 隠す (to hide…), etc.

14. ネズミのように逃げ遂せるのか。
Are you going to get away by running off like a rat?

15. もし犯人が死に果せることがあれば、あまり好ましくない結果を招くだろう。
If the criminal were to end it all by dying (himself), it would bring about a not-so favorable outcome.


果たす is the transitive form of 果てる and its main meaning is “to accomplish/fulfill,” and as should come as no surprise, it also has a secondary meaning of “to end (a life)/kill.”

16. あなた自身が果たした役割や周囲との関わり方が具体的に分かるように記してください。
Please write down the role you yourself accomplished and how you dealt with your surroundings in a way that will be concretely understood.

17. 敵を果たさずにおくものか。
How could I leave the enemy alive?

When used as a supplementary verb, it means “to completely do…” However, it is only attested with the following verbs: 使う (to use), 討つ (to attack/avenge), and する (to do).

18. 長男が、1兆円の相続金をたった1年で使い果たした。
The eldest son used up all of the 1-trillion yell inheritance money in just a year.

19. 行ふ処をば必ず為果たすが士なり。
Fully executing without fail what one is performing is what makes a samurai.
From the 足利本論語抄.


The transitive verb つける is highly versatile with the following broad nuances:

i. Having X be inseparable from Y – “to attach/append.”
ii. To place X in a certain spot – “to wear X on Y/place X in Y position/allot/bring alongside.”
iii. To follow/establish a relationship – “to place under/follow/shadow.”
iv. To put X/one’s senses into action – “to turn on X/keep an eye on.”
v. To produce a settled situation – “to (find the) resolve/set a name/set a price.”
vi. To prepare food and drink.
vii. To keep a diary.
viii. To produce fruit/flowers.

Orthography Notes:
1. 着ける may be used in the sense of “to wear (accessories).”
2. 点ける may be used in the sense of “starting/turning on (a source light).”
3. 附ける may be used in the sense of “to append.”
4. 付ける is meant to be used in the broadest sense of “to add,” and so it is the accepted, generalized spelling for any usage.

20. ちゃんと後を尾けて住居を突き止めてきた。
I diligently made sure to follow (the person) and have pinned down their residence.

21. うっかりiPhoneの「懐中電灯」を点けてしまうのを防止する方法は本当にないのでしょうか。
Is there really no way to prevent accidentally turning on an iPhone’s flashlight?

22. このツケは利息を付けて返してもらおう。
I’m going to have this tab paid back with interest.

23. 今日で話にけりをつけるつもりだったが、揉めてしまい思うようにいかなかった。
I intended on putting an end to the argument today, but we ended up arguing and things didn’t go as planned.

24. 女将、(お燗)一本つけてくれ!
Hostess, make me a thing of (warm sake)!

25. Amazonで当店の商品を高く値を付けて転売している店舗があった。
There was a store on Amazon that was reselling our store’s merchandise at higher prices.

26. 最初から目を付けていた。
I’ve had my eyes on (it/you) from the very beginning.

27. こんな人は、メディアを味方につけておくべし!
These sort of people ought to make sure they have the media on their side!

28. ブログで日記をつけてます!
I’m keeping a diary!

29. 桜が花をつけている。
The cherry blossom is producing flowers.

30. 猫に首輪を着けている。
I have a collar on the cat.

As a supplementary verb, ~付ける has just as many nuances which are determined by what sort of verb it is paired with.

i. Marking habitual actions that have become routine.
Exs. 行きつける (to visit frequently), 履きつける (to wear frequently)
ii. Marks an action done toward another person in a fierce manner.
Exs. 叩きつける (to slam against), 言いつける (to direct/tattle)
iii. To arrive or have someone arrive.
Exs. 駆けつける (to run/rush to), 呼びつける (to summon)
iv. To firmly establish.
Exs. 刻みつける (to engrave), 焼きつける (to burn into (memory))
v. To search out something with one’s senses.
Exs. 嗅ぎつける (to sniff out), 見つける (to find), 聞きつける (to overhear)

Orthography Note: Although normally written in Hiragana, ~付ける is acceptable for any usage as a supplementary verb. For when it strongly retains the literal sense of “attach,” ~附ける is also possible.

31. 真っ先に駆けつけよ! 
Run straight forth!

32. 怒鳴りつけるのは失礼じゃん。
Isn’t shouting at someone rude?

33. 彼女の言葉は頭に焼きつけられた。 
Her words were burned into my mind. 

34. それを無理やりに押さえつけてきただろう?
Haven’t you come this far suppressing that (feeling) against your better wishes?

35. 銀行は貸し金を貸し付けまくりました。
The banks overly lent out loans in a fury.

36. レストランの店長を呼びつけた経験はありますか?
Have you had the experience of calling for a restaurant’s manager?

37. こうしたケースでも、叱りつけてネガティブな感情を否定するのではなく、まずは受け止めることが大切です。 
Even in this kind of case, it’s important to first come to grips with it rather than scold and negate the negative emotions.

38. 男の人が、自分の行きつけのバーに女性を連れてくのって、どういう心境でですか?
What state of mind would a man be in to bring along a woman to his regular bar?

39. みんなは火事だ!という声を聞きつけて集まったらしいよ。
It seems everyone heard someone saying “fire!” and rounded up together.

40. そのイメージを植え付けた先人たちに言うんだな、責任を押し付けないでよ!
I’m telling all the prior people who instilled that image to not shove the responsibility (on us)!


The intransitive form of つける is つく. Aside from being its intransitive pair in every sense, it also has its own nuances such as “to arrive,” “to sit at,” “to be employed,” etc. 付く, the typical spelling of the verb is etymologically the same verb as 着く and 就く.

~つく shares many of the same nuances as ~つける, albeit limited to intransitive verbs in which the agent is willfully performing the action.

i. When indicating a fierce act, the sense of “clinging” is particularly strong, and when used with transitive verbs which cause one thing to end up attached to another like “to bite,” the resultant verb, “to bite at” is treated as an intransitive verb and takes the particle に accordingly.
Ex. 子供に噛みつく (to bite at a child)
ii. When attached to verbs of motion, it marks the arrival/placement of the agent as being there.
This nuance is often written as 着く.
Ex. 目的地に辿り着く (to arrive at the destination)

41. ヒグマは立ち上がり、車にかぶりついた。
The brown bear stood up and sank its teeth into the car.

42. 選挙の結果が出てくるにつれて、国民がみなテレビにかじりついていた。
As the election results were coming out, all the citizens were glued to their TVs.

43. 山の祠に居ついた彼だが、恋人が随分と前に寿命を迎えてしまった。
As for him, whose has been settled down in the small shrine in the mountains, his lover had already reached their end long before.

44. 代官所の牢を破って逃げたうえ、城下に住みついているとは大した度胸だな!
It takes quite the nerve to settle down near the castle after having broken out and escaped from the magistrate’s jail!
From 剣の舞 by 南條範夫.


くす either means “to devote oneself to” or “to work with all one’s might.” Its use as a supplementary verb builds upon the latter usage to mean “to do…exhaustively.”  

45. お医者さんは避難民ひなんみんのために尽くしています。
The doctor is administering to the refugees.

46. 彼女はまわりを走り尽くし続けた。
She continued to exhaustively run through the neighborhood.

47. 本当の達人なら女など知り尽くしても、立派に修業は続けられたと思う。
If (the person) were a true expert, even if he were well-versed with women or what have you, I believe he would still be able to continue his training brilliantly.

48. 誠に筆舌に尽くしがたいほどの感謝の気持ちでいっぱいです。
I am truly filled with appreciation beyond description.

49. 最善さいぜんを尽くしたいと思います。
I want to do my best.

50a. 洪水こうずい町全体まちぜんたいをなめくした。? 
50b. 洪水は町全体をおそった。〇
The flood wiped the entire town away. 
Literally: The flood licked (away) the town completely.

Sentence Note: There is one problem with 50a. なめ尽くす is used with ほのお火事かじ. For example, 山火事はふもとの町をなめ尽くした = The mountain fire licked away the town at the foot of the mountain. 

全て VS 全部 VS 全体 VS 全員 VS 総員 VS 皆

    Since the last sentence used 全体, this is a perfect time to contrast these six very similar words. 

 全て All (of something); everything 
 全部 All as in altogether
 全体 The entirety of something
 全員 All members; everyone
 総員 Same as 全員 but more technical
 皆 Everyone; everything

The differences are minor, but they can make a difference. 全部 suggests that there are individual parts. 全体 refers to all of a perimeter. 


As a supplementary verb, ~立てる marks an action that the agent is fervently carrying out. Likewise, its intransitive counterpart ~立つ indicates a state that is becoming intense or a spontaneous spike in behavior.

51. いつもならバカンス計画に心が浮き立っている頃だろう。
All things per usual, this is when I’d be riled up by my vacation plans.

52. 声援せいえんに勇み立つ。
To be encouraged by support. 

53. 責め立てても無理だよ。
It’s useless even if you reproach (him). 

54. 俺の体の中にほのおが燃え立っている。
Flames are ablaze inside my body.

55. 記者を質問で攻め立てた。
I bombarded the reporter with questions. 


The verb こなす derives from 粉に成す, meaning “to turn… into dust.” Its original meaning of “to break to pieces” expanded to mean “to digest (food).” The process of mastering one’s work by acquiring the skills to the point of it being second nature then became likened to how food is absorbed and nourishes the body. In other words, knowledge nourishes the mind.

In English, its meanings can be translated as follows:
i. “to digest”
ii. “to break down”
iii. “to have a good command of”
iv. “to perform well”
v. “to sell well”

Of these meanings, only iii.~iv. are common in modern speech, with i. and ii. being paraphrased to 消化する and 粉砕する respectively. Even so, the example below is a great bridging context that connects these various nuances together as its intransitive form こなれる continues the imagery of digestion while also being used with 作用 meaning “effect/function” in the sense of an action being performed well.

56. 鶏が茶碗の破片だの小石だのを食べて食物をこなすように、食物を砕く時中に固いものが少し交っているとかえってよくこなれる。
Just how chickens ingest bowl fragments, small rocks, and such to digest food, the stomach’s mechanical function of breaking down food, when there is something hard mixed in a little, is accomplished far better.
From 食道楽 by 村井弦斎.

57. 人が大人になってゼロから外国語を学び始めた場合、日常会話をこなせるようになるまでにも、ある程度時間がかかるものなのです。
In the even person has started to study a language from zero as an adult, even getting to the point of being able to master daily conversation requires time to a certain degree.

As a supplementary verb, ~こなす indicates that the agent does the action in question as one pleases with complete control.

58. 色んな系統の服を着こなした僕が一番モテる服装を教えします!
I, having mastered wearing clothing of all sorts, will teach you about clothing that will be most popular!

59. 知識ゼロから最短で読みこなせるようになる!
You’ll be able to master reading in the shortest time from zero knowledge!

60. スマホの設定、うまく使いこなせていますか?
Are you able to manage your smart phone settings alright?

61. 馬を乗りこなすだけのスキルと努力が要求される。
The skill and effort to maneuver horses is required.

Grammar Note: Notice how 乗りこなす takes the particle を as opposed to に as the transitivity of the phrase is determined by ~こなす.

漢字 Note: こなす is seldom written in Kanji as 熟す.