第81課: The Giving Verbs
Japanese has specific verbs that define the relationship between the giver and recipient. Their usages with て are so important and particularly difficult that they will be covered separately.
The 3 Personal Giving Verbs
The main verbs of giving are あげる, くれる, and もらう. They also have different forms.
Conjugation Note: The 連用形 of 下さる has a sound change of り → い with -ます.
あげる shows oneself giving something. It may also be used to show the giving of things by people in one’s in-group to other (close) in-group members. This does not mean, though, that this should ever be used for when someone, even if they are in your in-group, gives something to you.
My father gave my mother a watch. I too gave my mother a present.
My dad gave me a computer game.
Definitions Note: あげる can also mean “to rise”. Spelling depends on how it’s used. やる may be a casual form of “to do”, and it can also mean “to send; dispatch”, “to kill”, “to show (movie)”, “to drink (alcohol)”, “to suffer from”, etc.
くれる means an outsider or a less close member gives something to the speaker or to a member of one’s in-group. So, it is when someone gives something to either you or someone in your in group. It may also be used to describe either you or someone in your in-group doing something unpleasant to an opposing person. This is similar to “to let someone have…”.
もらう and its variant means “to receive; get”. It may also mean “to welcome someone/something into the family”. いただく is always said when receiving food, especially at the beginning of a meal.
Particle Note: For “to give”, に is used to mark the recipient while for “to receive”, the giver is marked by に. For the latter, から may be used instead. から, unlike に, may also be used with “receive” aside from an actual person.
I gave him a gift.
How about a drink?
To water the lawn.
Mr. Kato gave a dog to his son as a present.
The company president gave me a letter of introduction.
I gave meat to the/a dog.
My daughter gave a bouquet to the guests.
To borrow an idea.
We took this match.
Impersonal Giving Verbs
There are other verbs in Japanese that mean “to give” but are not at a personal level. 受ける is used in several situations for things received “outside of favor”, and 与える is generally used with things given “outside of a personal level”.
|受ける (Receive)||与える (Give)|
|Figurative, with things such as a ball or event.||Used in respect to animals.|
|Used with things such as a job, education, etc.||Used when granting things.|
|“To take/receive” an exam; often 受験する||Used with prizes.|
|Used with bringing harm.|
Word Note: 受ける may also be 受け止める. It is used in the sense of “to take” as in “to take the news”, “to take the events badly”, etc.
He took it seriously, didn’t he?
I took a highly competitive exam aiming for the prestigious high school.
He received a smaller injury on the neck.
To receive a sentence.
Give to the poor.
There is a lot of damage caused (given) by the typhoon.
I will give permission.
I gave (him) a good grade.
To have health checks.