Final Endings

第353課: Final Endings: ~こける, ~さす, ~倦む/倦ねる, ~逸れる, ~成す, & ~古す

These will be the final set of endings that you’ll have to go through. 


     こける means “sink/collapse in”. ~こける means that something continues on for a long time. 

1. 眠りこける。
    To sleep deeply.

2. 笑いこける。
    To laugh heartily.


     ~さす either shows that you stop in the middle of something that you have just started or that something is being delayed that has been going on.3. 彼は演説の途中で言いさしてしまった。    He accidentally broke off in the middle of his speech.

4a. 読みさす嫌いがある。4b. 読むのを途中でやめる嫌いがある。     I have a habit of leaving books half-read.

5. 歌詞を忘れたから歌いさしなきゃいけなかった。    Since I forgot the lyrics, I had to stop in the middle of singing.

Word Note: ~さす comes from 止す.


途中 means “during” and is a noun. It can refer to being on the way to somewhere or something not yet completed and is in a state of progress. In the above sentences, it was followed by being stopped mid-way.

6. 買い物に行く途中で・・・
    In the middle of going to go shopping…

7. 演奏を途中でやめる。
    To end a performance midway.

8. 来る途中で事故がありました。
    There was an accident on my way.  


     ~倦む・倦ねる follows the 連用形 and shows that something is too much for somebody or that one is tired of something. The verb and the resultant verbs are intransitive. 

9. 考え倦んだ結果、私は辞職します。
    As my plans haven’t shaped out, I will resign. 

10. 待ちあぐむ。
      I can no longer wait.

11. 攻めあぐねる。
      To lose the fighting initiative.


     逸れる means “to stray” and -逸れる shows that “one has missed out on something”. It is also more emphatic as ~っぱぐれる. 

12. 逸れた羊を捜し求めていた。
      I searched for the stray sheep.

13. 取りはぐれた宝石
     Jewelry missed taking 

14. 僕はデザートを食いっぱぐれちゃった。
      I ended up missing out on desert.

15. 行きはぐれる。
     To miss out on going.  


     成す has a few related meanings, of these are “to form”, “to do”, “to accomplish”, “to establish”, “to give birth to”, etc. In compound verbs it shows a meaning of intention and deliberate action. 

16. 織り成した人生模様
      Interwoven facets of life

17. 思いなしか。
      Maybe it’s my imagination?

18. 我々は彼を指導者と見なした。
     We looked at him as our leader.


     古す means “to wear out” and is attached to the 連用形 to create compound verbs that depict that “time and time again, X loses its newness”. Two common verbs that you will see this ending used with are 着る “to wear” and 言う “to say”. 

19. 着古して大分擦り切れてた。
      It was worn-out and quite threadbare.

20. あのおやじー、いつも使い古した言葉をいって使い古した帽子を被ってんのさ。(砕けた)
      That old guy’s always saying worn-out phrases and is always wearing worn-out hats.

21. 着古しの上着だな。(Masculine)
      That’s an old worn-out jacket, isn’t it?

22. ちょっと言い古されてるが、光陰矢のごとしは本当だよ!
      It’s a little cliche, but time really does fly like an arrow. 

Usage Note: 言い古す is always seen in the 受身形.