第269課: Circumstance: まま, 思いきや, & もと
“As is“, with verbs it is primarily seen in the pattern ～たまま(で). It is used to show action “as is” in a certain state without any change in course or situation. However, it is not necessarily the case that the subject in question is still. However, there is a very similarly meaning particle, なり, that we will learn about later which requires the subject be still. So, this is something to keep in mind.
It is not to say that this word is only used with the past tense, although for this meaning it most certainly is. However, in other usages you may see it used with the negative or demonstratives to show how a state is still the same without there being any change, which is of the same vein as above.
Though not really different in meaning, there is also the pattern ままに which is used to show that one leaves something to the course of a situation or to show things are going as thought. In other words, it shows something being left to a natural course of action. You may see this after verbs in the non-past form and even in the passive. You may also see ～がままに, which is very formal and 書き言葉的. A common phrase utilizing this older grammar is 思うがままに. In more modern Japanese, this would become 思いのままに.
This scenery is just as it was in the old times, isn’t it?
I left it alone the way it was.
Have you ever eaten something raw?
4b. 意のままに（思ったように）歌っていいんだよ。(More common)
I have the freedom to sing at will.
He only acted out of instinct.
Please leave the window open.
As it is now, we will surely die.
She slept with the lights on.
9. このままお待ち下さい。(On the phone)
Please hold the line.
There’s going to be a meeting, so please leave the chairs the way they are.
Running away with only one’s clothes.
12. 自然のままで素敵ですわね。(Very feminine)
It’s great keeping it natural.
漢字 Note: まま can be written in 漢字 as either 儘・侭.
Variant/Pronunciation Note: Depending on the speaker, with region being a significant factor, this may also be seen/pronounced as まんま.
ほしいまま, a very important phrase that uses mama that is written in 漢字 as either 恣, 縦, or 擅, means “selfish”.
To exert one’s power at will.
I enjoy the reputation of being the greatest Japanese professor in the world!
～と思いきや is equivalent to either “despite having thought” or “contrary to expectations”. Its literal translation is “just as I thought…”. Tense is determined by the final verb.
Despite having thought that she would just refuse, she consented to it.
Contrary to thinking that this restaurant was cheap, the bill was over five thousand yen!
Just as I thought he had gone home, I was scared by him.
Despite having thought that no one would attend that lecture, a lot of people attended.
Despite having thought that you would be made to slow down by congestion wherever you go in Japan, the traffic was normal like America.
Definition Note: 思いきや is equivalent to 思っていたところが.
もと may be written in 漢字 in different ways depending on how it is interpreted. You will see this word again in regards to ～をもとにして.
When written as such, it means “under” in a physical sense. It can also refer to be under rules, forces, etc. のもとで and のもとに are both possible, but the former refers to action/movement whereas the latter refers to existence/static situation. Both expressions are rather literary, but the latter is even more so.
I’m collecting taxes under the protection of the administration.
Under the law
There are no weak soldiers under a strong/brave general.
The older brother left from under his parents.
Being placed under harsh surveillance is awful, isn’t it?
On the basis of the sales forecast, we have decided to halt the manufacturing of the product.
Kids are playing under the sun.
Residents are gathering underneath the street light(s).
When written as such, もと means “former/previous”. Lastly, it may be used in two important expressions.
It’s best to return to the previous condition.
I happened to meet my former colleague suddenly today.
To bury the hatchet.31. 元の木阿弥。(Idiom)
Ending up right where you started.
|1.||Origin, source, root|
|2.||The basis of things, foundation. This usage may also be written in Kanji as 基.|
|3.||The cause. This usage may also be written in Kanji as 因.|
|4.||Funds, capital; cost price.|
|5.||Food stock, ingredients. This usage may also be written in Kanji as 素|
|6.||A counter that counts the number of stumps of plants.|
1. 本・元 may also be in 元も子もない which means “losing everything”.
2. As you may have noticed, usage number 4 is the same as the third usage of 下・許.
Failure is the source of success.
33. 惨事の本を辿ろう。(Literary Spelling)
I will pursue the origin of this horrible accident.
Did you find the root of the tree?
The cold is the source of all sorts of diseases.
You lose health due to alcohol and tobacco.
The transaction capital is high.
Do we have the soup stock?
I planted a single willow tree.