第362課: Native Verbal Affixes 大和言葉における動詞化接尾辞
This lesson examines 16 verbal affixes which all relate to describing appearance, demeanor, or behavior. Although the productivity of these affixes are not equal, many of the words formed from there are quintessential to the Japanese lexicon, whereas others are dying remnants of a once more morphologically diverse past.
Deriving from the standalone verb かかる, the five-grade conjugating verbal affix ～がかる attaches to nouns for one of two meanings.
②To be tinged with (color)
As can be gleamed from the definitions, the latter is used with typical nouns in the same way “-looking” is used in English. However, unlike the English equivalent, ～がかる is not entirely productive. Rather, you will have to unfortunately learn which phrases are made with it on a case-by-case basis. However, as for the second meaning, it can be used with any color.
Grammatically, phrases made with either meaning are limited in their conjugational capacity. In the predicate, it must be used in the progressive tense, and when used as an attribute, it must obligatorily be used with the auxiliary ～た.
|神がかる||To be possessed by the supernatural||芝居がかる||To be theatrical|
|時代がかる||To be antique-looking||詩がかる||To be poetic|
|黄（色）がかる||To be yellow-tinged||緑（色）がかる||To be green-tinged|
|赤（み）がかる||To be red-tinged||黒（み）がかる||To be tinged with black|
In ancient China, there were ceremonies in which (people) would break open turtle shells and have their fortunes told by a god-like figure.
Whether it’s intentional or theatrical, is that why it appears so?
When it comes to somewhat poetic barbarians, one associates really grandiose events such as how Achilles dragged Hector’s corpse and circled the walls of Troy thrice, or how Chang Fei laid down his serpent-shaped lance at Changban and looked back at Cao Cao’s force of a million men, and what not.
Fluorescent whitening agent itself is yellow-tinged in color, but it emits blue-tinged light due to ultraviolet rays.
Orthography Note: This ending may occasionally be spelled with the Ateji ～掛かる, but this is seldom the case in modern writing.
～ぐむ is a five-grade verbal affix which attaches to a handful of nouns to mark the start of a phenomenon. In the non-past tense, it captures the moment immediately before the start of the phenomenon, but when it is used in the progressive tense, it is describing the now ongoing phenomenon.
Being synonymous with ~始める and ～出す, one would think it would be used more widely, but it is, in fact, limited to set phrases which must be learned individually. However, it is thought to have originally been a transitive verb meaning “to include” which then fused with direct objects to then describe when something became apparent to the outside. So, the nouns it is seen used with today would be the ones it fused to at that time.
|涙ぐむ||To bring to tears||芽ぐむ||To bud|
|角ぐむ||To sprout (like thorns)||汗ぐむ (archaic)||To begin to sweat|
|皺ぐむ||To start to wrinkle||水ぐむ (archaic)||To contain too much water|
① 芽吹く is the generic word for trees/plants to “sprout” shoots. 芽ぐむ implies that the “sprouting” is just beginning. 角ぐむ is synonymous with 芽ぐむ, but it is more literary and has the sprouts akin to horns growing. When used, it is usually in reference to things like reeds and 芒（ススキ） (Japanese pampas grass).
②汗ぐむ has since been replaced by phrases such as 汗ばむ (see below) and 汗が滲む.
The willows and all the trees (began to) sprout as the snow piles melted.
Ice melts as the reeds begin to sprout forth.
I was brought to tears from being scorned at.
In the event a dog’s eyes are teared up, there is the possibility it is suffering from a condition called epiphora.
(I) had brought out the gourds, but since they had gone bad and had too much moisture (become too ripe)…
～さびる is a first-grade conjugating verbal affix whose Classical Japanese form was a upper two-grade conjugating affix in the form of ～さぶ. Either way, this ending attaches to nouns to describe behavior attributed to said noun.
In Modern Japanese, it is incredibly rare and is usually restricted to the noun 神 (god/deity). Even in Classical Japanese, it was only most prominent in Old Japanese, afterward becoming limited to three extant examples that may still be found in literature.
|神（かみ・かん）さびる||① To behave divinely②To have a divine presence③Antiquated|
|翁さびる||To behave like an old man|
|秋さびる||To become autumn-like|
①In Old Japanese, 神さぶ is thought to have actually been pronounced as かむさぶ.
②Being homophonous to them, it would appear that ～さびる shares the same origin as the verbs 寂びる (to become antiquated) and 錆びる (to rust). The latter is thought to stem from the former, but as the former refers to something aging and taking on a particular characteristic, that would semantically be in line with how the only words ～さびる is used with are ones which involve antiquity or an extensive period of time.
I am greatly humbled to speak openly of this:
back when Empress Jinguu had gone to Silla and subjugated it,
she preciously held two stones resembling brilliant orbs to calm her mind,
which she then showed to the world and asked that they be passed down generations,
after which she herself placed it near the village of Fukae along the shore plain of Kou.
Ever since, they are still priceless stones are so sublime and filled with divine power.
Ugh, what an old man thing to say.
The top of the foliage of Toyama lit by the setting sun resembles autumn as Oda at the foot of the mountain has also changed colored.
The upper first-grade conjugating verb 染（し）みる means “to soak in/stain.” You may also see the spelling 沁みる when it is used in the emotional sense of “to make a deep impression.” Other spellings for the literal sense of “to soak/penetrate/stain/permeate” include 浸みる, 滲みる, and 泌みる, but these are all exceptionally rare as only 染みる is treated as a standardized spelling.
Though I’d intended for it to go down my back, soap got in my eyes, and I can’t see in front of me.
In addition to being a standalone verb, it also gained the function of being a compound ending in which it is used as a verbal affix in the form ～じみる that attaches to nominal phrases to either describe how something has stained something or to describe that something feels like it’s taken on a certain condition/state. In either situation, it is mostly used with a negative connotation.
When used before nouns, it is used in the form ～じみた, but when used as the predicate, it is obligatorily seen in the progressive tense as ～じみている. It is also possible to see it used in the gerund combined with verbs like “to appear,” giving ～じみて見える. However, it is seldom used beyond a few more forms such as the negative ～じみていない (see Ex. 10).
|世帯じみる||To be fond of home||年寄りじみる||To sound old|
|油じみる||To be oil-stained||子供じみる||To act child-like|
|狂気じみる||To be crazed||言い訳じみる||Excuse-like|
①世帯 is officially read as せたい, although in everyday language, it is usually read as しょたい. This is because the word is thought to have originated from 所帯. Thus, in everyday writing, 世帯 and 所帯 are seen interchangeably.
②～じみる is become less common. For instance, 言い訳じみる has become mostly replaced with the synonymous phrase 言い訳がましい, but some phrases like 世帯じみる and 子供じみる still remain common, at least in the written language. When referring to stains from liquid-like substances, ～まみれ（の） is the most common affix.
Nowadays, it seems that “domestic wives” are becoming dislikes and that “wives who aren’t so stuck in the home” are on the rise.
An old-stained man waved his hand.
Don’t act childish.
His face for some reason or another appeared exemplary.
(You/that person) sure sounds like an old man/woman despite being so young.
To the second floor there was an examination room and a waiting room, and below, in addition to the iron hammer, metal roller, glass fire, engine, and what not neurotic factory-like noises, there were four small kids, and to make matters worse, it was a street with a tram.
Orthography Note: Although it is not incorrect to spell it in Kanji, the Kana spelling ～じみる is the predominant spelling in today’s writing.
The affix ～だつ follows either nominals or the stem of adjectives/adjectival nouns to create a four-grade conjugating verb, and its purpose is to note some characteristic. Although it is similar in meaning to ～のようだ, it is still verbal in nature. After all, it does come from the verb 立つ’s nuance of “to manifest.”
This ending was far more productive throughout Old and Middle Japanese, but its use today can still be seen in a handful of phrases. Below, the vocabulary chart is split into two columns, one with examples still prevalent in Modern Japanese and the other with some of the most common examples in Classical Japanese.
|殺気立つ||To be frenzied/murderous||大人立つ||To act adult-like|
|浮足立つ||To be in a fidget/prepared to flee||忠実（まめ）立つ||To act serious|
|主（おも）立つ||To be main/prominent||情け立つ||①To act like one is full of affection②To act refined|
|気色立つ||①To show signs of②To become animated③To show one’s feelings④To put on airs||聖（ひじり）立つ||To look like a monk/saint|
|際立つ||To be prominent||紫立つ||To be purplish|
①主（おも）立つ is used exclusively as a 連体詞 in the attributive form of 主立った.
②気色立つ is for the most part archaic, having been more prevalent in Classical Japanese. However, it is still occasionally used in literature to this day.
③Oddly enough, the phrase 浮足立つ didn’t appear in this form until Early Modern Japanese, making it an exceptional case of an old grammar point seeing some new light.
The spectators seethed in rage that it was a rigged race.
I could hear the animated voices of people on the other side of the wall.
Since (Genji) cannot help but feel ashamed (for leaving behind Murasaki-no-Ue), he doesn’t dare show his emotions to (Akashi-no-Kimi).
The company employees are becoming restless at the rumors (that the company might go) bankrupt.
24. あまりの恐ろしさに【鳥肌立っていた △・鳥肌が立っていた】。
To have goose bumps from the extreme fright.
Word Note: The form 鳥肌立つ has faded out of use, being replaced by 鳥肌が立つ. Both utilize the literal interpretation of 立つ as “to emerge/manifest (＝現象の兆しが見える）.” In today’s speech, the phrase 鳥肌が立つ can refer to having “goose bumps” from any sort of emotional stimulus, but in the past, the phenomenon was just associated with fright, severe cold, or other similar negative stimuli.
It’s rather hard to say to people who act so serious.
It’s nice for individuals like a provincial governor to be all adult and plump.
Only three trees stood on a hill-like area in the middle of the field.
When it became dusk, he had supper and such, and then he strutted around like the head of the household.
The affix ～つく attaches to onomatopoeic roots to create a five-grade conjugating verb. Though some pairs will differ somewhat in meaning, all examples of “onomatopoeic root + ～つく” have an alternative form created by doubling the onomatopoeic root.
|非対格動詞||いらつく||To get irritated||非対格動詞||ぎらつく||To dazzle|
|非対格動詞||ちらつく||①To flicker②To fall lightly||①非能格動詞②非対格動詞||ざわつく||①To be noisy (from people talking)②To be discomposed|
|べたつく||①To be sticky②To be close together (with someone’s body)||非対格動詞||びくつく||To be scared|
|非対格動詞||ねばつく||To be sticky||非対格動詞||まごつく||To be at a loss|
|非対格動詞||むかつく||①To get pissed off②To feel nauseous||非対格動詞||ざらつく||To be sandy/gritty|
|他動詞||ぱくつく||To gulp down food||他動詞||がっつく||To devour greedily|
|非能格動詞||うろつく||To loiter||非能格動詞||いちゃつく||To flirt|
Syntactically, there are three groups of these so-called “つく-onomatopoeic verbs.” The resulting verb may be an unergative (intransitive) verb, an unaccusative (intransitive) verb, or a transitive verb. First, let’s understand what these three terms mean.
- Unergative Verb (= 非能格動詞): An intransitive verb that only has a semantic agent.
- Unaccusative Verb (= 非対格動詞): An intransitive verb whose grammatical subject is not a semantic agent. Meaning, the subject neither ‘actively initiates’ nor is willfully responsible for the action of the verb.
- Transitive Verb (= 他動詞): A verb with an active agent and an object which receives the action.
The majority of つく-onomatopoeic verbs are unaccusative verbs. Meaning, their grammatical subjects differ from verbs like “to run.” “To run” along with its Japanese equivalent 走る are examples of unergative verbs as their subjects are willful agents of the action they describe, but they don’t possess an object. On the other hand, unaccusative verbs are more similar to the objects of transitive sentences in the sense that they don’t act upon anything, but the action can be described as something happening to the subject.
As for what ～つく means in relation to onomatopoeia, it appears to have two separate meanings. The first meaning is to mark a “change described by the onomatopoeia” and the second meaning is to mark “the action described by the onomatopoeia.” The first meaning is fitting for the unaccusative examples whereas the second meaning is fitting for the transitive and unergative examples. Let’s look at some sentences for comparison.
- 非対格動詞をつくる「～つく」→ オノマトペで表される状態移行を描写する
Have you gotten confused at a foreign country?
I got ticked off at my boss at work.
There are times in which an iPhone’s screen may flicker with an iOS bug being the cause.
My determination has wavered.
Although it is still sprinkling, the sky has gotten quite brighter.
The one thing that’s so strange is that these humans of leisure not only go about screaming that they’re busy-busy whenever they come together, their very complexations look terribly busy, or worse, they’re so restless it’s as if they’re going to be devoured by their busyness.
- 非能格動詞・他動詞をつくる「～つく」＝ オノマトペで表される意図的・意志的な活動・動作をする
What are you doing hanging around here?
There is a couple making out outside.
Quit with just wandering about the house every day and try getting a job, won’t you?
It seems that a bear is on the prowl around here.
Orthography Note: ～つく is believed to ultimately derive from 付く, although the literal meaning of this source verb have long since disappeared. Nonetheless, you will occasionally see writers use 付く as in 当て字 spelling. Generally speaking, however, the Kana spelling is predominant for all words in which it used.
The intransitive five-grade conjugating (五段活用) affix ～づく is the result of 付く attaching to nominal phrases to express a condition intensifying ( ～ような様子が強くなる ) or that something has become a certain way (～ような状態になる) . Although it would seem like this affix should be productive, it has become limited to set phrases. Some words are used heavily whereas some are hardly used, but you will notice from the words below that many have quite specialized meanings.
|色づく|| To change color|
To turn crimson
|愛嬌づく||To become charming|
|調子づく||To warm up to||元気づく||To become encouraged|
|秋づく||To become fall-like||根づく||To take root|
|怖気づく||To be seized with fear||気色づく||To show signs of|
|毒づく||To speak bitterly||基づく||To be based on|
Word Note: The examples above that have become archaic are 秋づく and 気色づく.
I knew that what had faded would return to being full of color.
His cursing a fan who had heckled him was reported by the media.
It’s still too early to get cold feet and run away.
Shin Buddhist teachings are strongly rooted in the Hokuriku Region.
Orthography Note: For the most part, ～づく is not written in Kanji, but the choice to do so is up to personal choice. However, it is notably common to see 根付く written as such rather than as 根づく．
Not all examples of ～づく are derived from 付く. Another verbal affix, ～尽く, existed in Classical Japanese and was equivalent to ～を尽くす. Oddly enough, although it exhibited four-grade conjugation in the classical eras, it has survived in Japanese it nominalized (or adjectival noun) set phrases (see also Lesson 327).
Why won’t Japan ever attempt to take back the Northern Territories by force?
If one weren’t a person doing it premeditated, would it not be embarrassing upon looking back on oneself?
This lower two-grade (下二段) verbal affix ～づける, derived from the verb 付ける, attaches to nominal phrases to create transitive verbs while contributing the meaning of “to add/give (a characteristic to something).” Verbs made with this ending, though limited in number, tend to be very common words.
|関係づける||To relate to||元気づける||To cheer up|
|位置づける||To position/locate||力づける||To empower|
|意味づける||To give meaning to||名づける||To name|
To obligate the taxpayers.
I encouraged him to try it again.
We are ranking it as standard.
My friend Kate named the male ferret she began raising “Pancake.”
How to add meaning to the experience will become crucial.
The intransitive five-grade conjugating verbal affix ～ばむ indicates taking on a particular quality. This affix is only seen in less than a handful of verbs.
|汗ばむ||To be sweaty||黄ばむ||To become tinged yellow|
|気色ばむ||To display one’s anger||由ばむ※||To put on airs|
①気色ばむ is notably not used in the spoken language, but it remains used on occasion in the written language.
②由ばむ is an archaism that has since been replaced by other phrases such as 気取る. It must be noted, though, that in Classical Japanese, ～ばむ possessed a slightly larger realm of usage including attaching to the roots of adjectives and verbs, which can be seen in words such as おかしばむ (to appear interesting) 老いばむ (to seem old). However, even these examples were limited.
This yellowed paper has really become old, hasn’t it?
There was a scene in which the mayor displayed [his/her] anger towards an assembly member’s remark.
The audience were terribly sweaty because all the fans had broken down.
The five-grade conjugating verbal affix ～張（ば）る derives from the verb 張る (to affix), and with that it gives the meaning of “to be prominently/persistently…” The tendency described is one that is striking and remarkable.
derives from the persists something and shows that a tendency is even more remarkable. All examples with it can be viewed as set phrases, but perhaps the most famous example would be 頑張る (to do one’s best/persevere), a word that is often taught on day one of Japanese 101. Although most other examples aren’t nearly as common as this one, this ending remains persistent in both the spoken and the written language.
|頑張る||To keep at it||角張る||①To be angular/jagged②To be stiff/ceremonious|
|格式張る||To adhere to formality||気張る||To exert oneself|
|欲張る||To covet||威張る||To swagger|
|意地張る||To be obstinate||見栄張る||To be ostentatious|
①角張る may be read as かどばる or かくばる. Both readings are readily understood and used interchangeably.
②意地を張る is actually far more predominant than 意地張る, but there is no difference in meaning. The same goes for 見栄張る meaning “to be ostentatious.” However, the nominal forms 意地っ張り (obstinate person) and 見栄っ張り (ostentatious person) exist, which involves the sound change /b/ to /:p/ to make the words sound more emphatic.
Don’t be so greedy.
Being so ceremonious is so uncomfortable.
In the past, intellectuals would translate using highly formal Kanji.
To tell a story in a formal style like that of a samurai.
Don’t strain yourself.
The affix ～びる started out in Classical Japanese as ～ぶ. This form possessed two separate conjugation classes depending on what it followed. First, it must be understood that this affix indicates “exhibiting the quality of (said noun, adjective, adjective noun, etc.).” This meaning remains consistent in all the roots it followed.
The affix ～ぶ attached to nouns, onomatopoeic roots, as well as the roots of adjectives and adjectival nouns. However, the conjugation class divide appears to be a semantic one not based on the part of speech of which it attaches to. The two conjugation classes it possessed were upper two-grade and four-grade.
The Upper Two-Grade ～ぶ → The Upper One-Grade ～びる
The upper two-grade examples are compromised of words which are unrelated to human emotion. These words largely reflect physical appearance or a description of demeanor, but words such as “sad” or “happy” were not used with the upper two-grade ～ぶ as those words are directly related to human emotion. In Modern Japanese, these verbs transformed into upper one-grade verbs with the transformed 終止形・連体形 of ～びる. All of these verbs are intransitive.
Grammatically, all of the verbs listed below with exception to 滅びる and 荒びる are heavily restricted as to which structures they’re used with. The rest are not used in the non-past in predicative sentences. Instead, the progressive form ～びている is used, which may then be conjugated further. Due to the overall decline of ～びる, however, with exception to 滅びる and 荒びる, these words are mostly restricted to being used as attributes, in which case they are obligatorily used with ～た, producing examples such as 古びた, etc.
|大人びる||To look/behave adult-like||鄙びる||To be(come) very rustic/hick|
|古びる||To be worn-out||雅びる||To be refined|
|荒びる||To behave wild||田舎びる||To become countrified|
|幼びる||To look/behave childish||滅びる||To perish/become ruined|
|綻びる||To come apart at the seams|
①荒びる is marked as archaic in some dictionary resources. Although this is true in standard speech, there are parts of Japan where this word is still in common use. For instance, in Nagano it is still used with the meaning “to rage” and in Ehime it is especially used in the sense of “to rough-house.” Where this word is still commonly used, it demonstrates no restrictions to its conjugational capacity.
②鄙 is an out-of-date noun meaning, “land far removed from the city.” As a standalone noun, it may still be found in the expression 鄙には稀な meaning, “rare even in the middle of nowhere.” This makes it synonymous with 田舎. There is a decent percentage of people who misunderstand this word as meaning “to be sophisticated,” perhaps due to the nostalgic ring this word has as opposed to the synonymous 田舎びる. However, this is not a valid use of the word as it is used throughout Japan with its original meaning as can be gleamed from the dialectal sentence in Ex. 56.
③雅びる is the antonym of 鄙びる, which is ironic considering how the latter is misused with a similar meaning to that of 雅びる. The みや in this word is likely the same /miya/ as in the words 宮 (palace) and 都（みやこ） (capital). In this word, it would seem /miya/ has the literal meaning of “city.” Thus, 雅びる more literally means “behaving city-like.” In Modern Japanese, although 雅びる is defunct and limited to literature, the noun 雅（みや）び is still widely known in the sense of “elegance” as well as a personal name. 雅び can also be used as an adjectival noun with the meaning of “elegant.”
④Though common in Classical Japanese as 幼（をさな）ぶ, the modern form 幼びる has mostly been replaced by the paraphrased equivalent 幼く見える.
⑤The /horo/ in 滅びる is thought to be onomatopoeic in nature. Although ほろほろ has several nonrelated meanings in Modern Japanese, it does have the meaning of “breaking into pieces (with little effort).” Although 滅びる is the proper form, the five-grade form 滅ぶ has existed for centuries. Both 滅びる and 滅ぶ are still used.
⑥The etymology of 綻びる is unclear. In addition to the meaning listed above, it may also be “to begin to bloom” and ‘to break into a smile.” Similarly to 滅びる, it also has the four-grade form 綻ぶ. Both forms are in use.
Obtained the Ancient Sheath!
You look mature for your age.
That there’s a beat-down hot-spring resort.
The north of the temple is the big city, but to the south the scenery changes, rustic in appearance.
The Four-Grade ～ぶ → The Five-Grade ～ぶ・む
The four-grade conjugating affix ～ぶ attached to words related to human emotion. In Modern Japanese, these verbs became five-grade conjugating verbs ending in ～む, but it must be noted that the consonant in Classical Japanese would have been /mb/, which was transcribed as either ～ぶ or ～む throughout antiquity.
※Dictionaries will list 緩む as having the alternate classical forms 緩ぶ and 緩ふ, but the latter form was limited to Old Japanese and is likely a reflection of how /mb/ was realized during that time period.
Generally speaking, verbs created in this way were transitive and synonymous with ～く思う. Examples of this include 悲しむ (→ 悲しく思う). Some examples, however, were intransitive such as 緩む, which had transitive forms that conjugated as lower two-grade verbs (now ending in ～める in Modern Japanese).
|To relax (intr.)To relax (trans.)||嬉しむ（他・自）||To think happily of (trans.)To become happy (intr.)|
|儚む（他）||To despair of||悲しむ（他・自）||To mourn of (trans.)To be sad (intr.)|
|To loosen (intr.)To loosen up (trans.)||倦む（自）||To be(come) bored/tired|
①緩む and 弛む may mean “to become loose” in a physical sense, but they are a part of this word group because of their emotional connotation.
②The ～む found in other verbs such as 親しむ, 楽しむ, etc. is the same as the ～む in these verbs.
③The modern iteration of 弛む is たるむ, but in Classical Japanese and set expressions, its traditional pronunciation is たゆむ.
④嬉しむ is now archaic in standard speech.
It’s right before consecutive holidays, and (so) I’m not as focused.
There character was so good, yet why did they despair of the world so badly and end up committing suicide?
As a result of striving tirelessly without ever letting up, I passed the entrance exam.
Transitive Upper Two-Grade ～ぶ → Transitive Five-Grade ～ぶ
There are four examples of transitive verbs created with ～ぶ that started out as upper-two grade verbs but evolved into transitive five-grade verbs into Modern Japanese※.
|真似ぶ※||To mimic/learn||学ぶ||To learn|
|喜ぶ||To rejoice||否む||To refuse/deny|
※Although Modern Japanese possesses the verb forms 真似（を）する and 真似る for “to mimic,” the traditional form was 真似ぶ. Indeed, “to exhibit mimicry” is by all means equivalent to “to mimic,” making this a perfect example of how ～ぶ produced transitive verbs. Although this form has disappeared, it also had the meaning of “to learn,” which was inherited by the slightly altered form まなぶ → 学ぶ.
One cannot deny that newcomers lack experience.
～ぶる is a five-grade conjugating ending which attaches to nouns or to the stem of adjectives/adjectival nouns to indicate that someone is “pretending/acting as…” This ending is very common and can be used after any noun regarding people; however, it is only used with a handful of adjectives/adjectival nouns. This ending gives off a negative connotation. Thus, a word like 善人ぶる shouldn’t be viewed as “to act like a good person” but more like “to pretend to be a good person.”
All verbs made with this affix are intransitive and they all tend to be restricted grammatically to predicates utilizing the progressive and in attributes made with ～ている or ～た.
|偉ぶる||To put on airs||親ぶる||To act like a parent|
|上品ぶる||To be prudish||聖人ぶる||To pretend to be a saint|
|学者ぶる||To be pedantic||勿体ぶる||To assume importance|
|空（から）ぶる||To swing and miss||荒ぶる||To act all savage|
Grammar Note: It is also possible to see ぶる used as a standalone verb with the meaning of “to be self-important.” Usually, though, it is used as a suffix.
Word Note: 荒ぶる is often confused with the classical 連体形 of 荒びる. 荒ぶる remains as a 連体詞 most commonly seen in the expression 荒ぶる神 (raging god) when derived from the 連体形 of 荒びる , but when it is derived from 荒 + ～ぶる, the proper attributive form would be 荒ぶった. For example, 荒ぶった態度 (attitude acting all savage).
I hate people who think they’re all that.
Stop acting so important.
Isn’t that a little pedantic way of saying it?
That gives off the face that only they’re human, acting all too prudish; quite the stupid bastard.
Orthography Note: This affix may be spelled as ～振る, but it is seldom spelled this way. ～ぶる is most certainly etymologically related to 振る舞う (to behave), but the exact meaning of both /furu/ and /mau/ in this compound verb remains a mystery. What is certain is that the Kanji chosen are merely Ateji and that neither word is related to the standalone verb 振る “to shake/sprinkle.”
Etymology Note: Meaning-wise, ～ぶる seems strikingly similar to ～ぶ. Both exhibit ～ぶる as a possible form, although for the latter this would be archaic. However, ～ぶる is seen with the same exact meaning of “to pretend to be…” even in Classical Japanese and with the same conjugation class. Although ～ぶ does mark behavior, this is often in association with ‘change’ in appearance/demeanor which is not implied by ～ぶる. Thus, the etymology of ～ぶる remains in mystery.
The verbal affix ～めく attaches to nouns, onomatopoeic roots, as well as the stems of adjectives or adjectival nouns to indicate “signs of.” Its productivity is restricted to set phrases when combined with adjectival and onomatopoeic roots, but it still enjoys a certain degree of personal creativity when combined with nouns relating to people, in which case it is like a refined way of saying “-like.” For instance, 才人めいた (talented-like).
Grammatically speaking, it must also be noted that ～めく is most frequently used in the attributive sense with the auxiliary ～た, and when it is used in the predicative sense, it is usually paired with the progressive tense. However, many examples created from onomatopoeic roots are more likely to be used with varied syntax such as 蠢（うごめ）く (to squirm).
|騒（ざわ）めく||To be noisy/rustle||閃（ひらめ）く||To flash|
|仄（ほの）めく||To glimmer||色めく||To be tinged/grow lively|
|謎めく||To be mysterious||春めく||To be spring-like|
|時めく||To flourish||学者めく||To be scholar-like|
The changing in colors of the maple trees in the garden is really beautiful, isn’t it?
Ah, a wriggling worm!
He is one of the most touted singers of today.
To display a mysterious condition.
The river surface glistens in the sunlight.
People jumped back in a stir. One person’s back hit Asuka. This sent her flying, resulting in her shoulder hitting a wall. It was then that she bounced back while staggering, narrowly almost dangerously tumbling over.
From 野生の風 by 村山由佳.
The standalone verb めかす (粧す) means “to make one’s appearance stand out.” As an affix, it attaches to nouns or adjectival nouns to mean “to make something out to be.” The standalone verb and affix both derive from the transitive form of the similar verbal affix ～めく which attaches to a variety of words with the meaning of “to show signs of.”
The words that ～めかす attaches to is limited to set-phrases. Additionally, words made with it are seldom used with two exceptions being the verb 仄めかす (to suggest) and the phrase 冗談めかして (half-jokingly). Otherwise, the other example words shown in the chart below are quite rare.
|仄めかす||To suggest/imply||冗談めかす||To joke|
|秘密めかす||To pose as a secret||親切めかす||To be sleek|
|学者めかす||To pose as a scholar||風流めかす||To pose as elegant|
Semantically, we can see that there is a lot in common between ～めかす and ～ぶる from earlier. Although dictionaries do not state any grammatical constraints on the practical use of words made with ～めかす, aside from 仄めかす (which happens to be a commonly used word), the rest are restricted to being used in adverbial gerunds with the particle て or as attributes with the auxiliary ～た.
It would also appear to be the case that aside from 仄めかす and 冗談めかす, most examples can be viewed as conceptions on the part of the speaker to create a unique remark. There is a heightened literary sense made when employing this ending which would otherwise not be had if a more standard phrasing were used.
“No, I want to be with you every day,” my husband said (half-)jokingly.
I only suggested.
～やく is yet another affix which indicates behavior, but it is limited to a very small number of onomatopoeic roots. Interestingly enough, it would seem that the behavior in question is limited to words related to murmuring or similarly sounding vocalizations as there are only three extant words made with it that all share this theme.
|囁く||To whisper/rumor||呟く||To mutter/tweet||ぼやく||To grumble/complain|
To whisper in the ears.
I gently muttered it to him.
The affix ～やぐ attaches to nouns and the stems of adjectives to show that something takes on or behaves to fit a certain appearance. This affix is the verbal equivalent of ～やか and may also be seen as ～らぐ in some instances. For more coverage, see the lesson on the affix /-gu/, which is actually embedded in this ending.
|和らぐ||To soften/calm down||若やぐ||To act/look young|
There is a cheerful atmosphere in the air.
What a youthful voice.