Reduplication: Adjectival Nouns

第284課: Reduplication: Adjectival Nouns

Reduplication in adjectival nouns is somewhat more complicated than for nouns or adjectives. The reason for this is that as we’ve learned before, whether to use na な or no の is a bit all over the place, and in addition to that, many of the phrases shown here may also have alternate uses as adverbs.

Just as before, some examples of reduplication in adjectival nouns derive from nouns, adjectives, adjectival nouns, verbs, and even onomatopoeic expressions. However, you will be disappointed that the number of reduplicated adjectival nouns is dwindling in Modern Japanese.

・From Nouns: Kazukazu [no] 数々(の)- Numerous
・From Adjectives: Atsuatsu [no] 熱々(の) - Piping hot
・From Adjectival Nouns: Boroboro [na/no] ぼろぼろ(な・の) - Run-down
・ From Verbs: Tobitobi [na] 飛び飛び(な) - Scattered here and there
・From Onomatopoeia: Pikapika [no/na] ぴかぴか(の・な)- Sparkling

Grammatical restraints are just as all over the place as the etymologies of these instances of reduplication. Most instances can be used as adverbs by using ni に, which is no different than the majority of adjectival nouns. However, some may only be used to the extent of ni naru になる, and so playing with each one to see how much it can be used in is necessary. 


From Nouns 

1. 社会しゃかいると数々かずかず問題もんだい直面ちょくめんする。
    Shakai ni deru to kazukazu nomondai ni chokumen suru.
    When you enter society, you encounter numerous problems.

2. 種々しゅじゅ対策たいさくこうじる。
    Shuju notaisaku wo kōjiru.
    To take all sorts of measures.  

3. 色々いろいろ場所ばしょにポケモンが生息せいそくしています。
     Iroiro nabasho ni pokemon ga seisoku shite imasu.
     Pokemon inhabit variousplaces.

4. おにく程々ほどほどあじ値段ねだん割高わりだかです。
    Oniku wa hodohodo no aji de nedam mo waridaka desu.
    As for the meat, the price is also fairly expensive with a moderatetaste.

5. かれ元々もともと結婚願望けっこんがんぼうがなかった。
    Kare wa motomoto, kekkon gambō ga nakatta.
    He had no desire to marry from the start.

Usage NoteMotomoto 元々 may be used as an adverb without the need of any particle.

6. 元々もともと意味いみはごぞんじですか。
    Motomoto noimi wa gozonji desu ka?
    Do you know what the originalmeaning is?

7. 帰宅きたくおそくなったりしますが、営業職えいぎょうしょくとしては並々なみなみ残業ざんぎょうかとおもいます。
    Kitaku ga osoku nattari shimasu ga, eigyōshoku to shite wa naminami no zangyō ka to omoimasu.
    Coming home is sometimes late or what not, but I think that’s ordinary overtime for a business job.

From Adjectives

8. ピリから熱々あつあつキムチをごはん一緒いっしょべました。
    Pirikara de atsuatsu nokimuchi wo gohan to issho ni tabemashita.
    I ate my meal/cooked rice with spicy and piping hot kimchi.

9. 久々ひさびさカレーをつくった。
    Hisabisa nikarē wo tsukutta.
I made curry after a long while.

From Adjectival Nouns

10. おっと結婚けっこんするまでぼろぼろのふくていました。
      Otto wa kekkon suru made boroboro no fuku wo kite imashita.
      My husband worse ragged clothes up until we got married.

From Verbs

11. 亮太君りょうたくん彼女かのじょいきえになるほどあついキスをした。
      Ryōta-kun wa kanojo ni iki ga taedae ni naruhodo atsui kisu wo shita.
     Ryota gave her such a warm kiss so strong it left her gasping.

12. いろとりどりにはないています。
      Iro toridori nihana ga saite imasu.
     Multi-colored flowers are blooming.

13. 空白くうはくびになっている。
ūhaku ga tobitobi ni natte iru.
Empty spaces are scattered everywhere.

From Four Character Idioms

14. 奇々怪々ききかいかい事件じけんあざやかにかしていく。
      Kikikaikai najiken wo azayaka ni tokiakashite iku.
      I will vividly dispel bizarre cases.

Word Note: 奇々怪々 is rare and would usually be replaced with the simpler kikai 奇怪 from which it derives.

From Onomatopoeia

      Pikapika no ha wo torimodoshimashō.
      Restore one’s sparkling teeth!

From Prefixes

16. 周辺諸国しゅうへんしょこくにもその影響えいきょう伝播でんぱし、諸々もろもろ事情じじょうによって崩壊ほうかいしていったとのことでした。
Shūhen shokoku ni mo sono eikyō ga dempa shi, moromoro no jijō ni yotte hōkai shite itta to no koto deshita.
That effect propagated to all the neighboring countries as well, which led to them collapsing under all kinds of circumstances.

17. 諸々もろもろ了解りょうかいしました。
     Moromoro, ryōkai shimashita.
     Rodger that to everything.

Usage NoteMoromoro 諸々 may be used as an adverb without the need of any particle.