Disregard II

第303課: Disregard II: によらず & (の)いかん{にかかわらず・を問わず・によらず}

This lesson continues on the topic of expressions that translate as “regardless of/irrespective of.” For the most part, most of this lesson brings very little new information aside from the introduction of によらず and the use of いかん with this expression as well as those introduced in the introductory lesson on this topic.


によらず comes from the verb 依る in conjunction with the auxiliary verb ず. It is inherently the negative form of によって, which is used most often to show the agent of a sentence—“by” which/whom something is done, or to show means. As によらず, it may either show that something is “not by…” or that “X” isn’t concerned with the situation at hand. Ultimately, its main purpose is to reject dependency. In other words, the Y circumstance is not dependent on an X circumstance.

Nouns that によらず is most likely to follow include those that deal with kind, standards, hope, efforts, goals, etc.

1. 人間にんげんすくいは、人間にんげん資質ししつ性格せいかく努力どりょく経験けいけんなどにはよらず、神様かみさまあい福音ふくいんしんじることによって、かみすくいにいたることが出来るというものです。
Man’s salvation does not come by a person’s endowments, nature, efforts, or experiences, but by believing in God’s love and His Gospel, one may be able to attain God’s saving grace.

Sentence Note: によらず is very common with religious expressions. This is partly because many religious texts are translated works; however, they do provide perfect context for this expression.

2. かけによらずべるんですね。
You sure eat a lot despite your appearance, huh.

3. 仕事しごと内容ないようによらず、給料きゅうりょう一定いっていしている。
Salaries are fixed regardless of the substance of one’s work.

4. 武力ぶりょくによらず、権力けんりょくによらず、ただれいによって、ちはだかるやま平地へいちとなる。
Neither by force of arms nor by authority but by my spirit alone, this mountain which looms forth shall become flat land.

5. えるところによらず、信仰しんこうによってあゆむ。
I walk not by where I can see but by faith.

6. 北極星ほっきょくせい季節きせつ時間じかんによらず、いつもおな真北まきた方角ほうがくえます。
Polaris is always seen in the same due north direction regardless of time or season.

7. 許可きょかによらず農地等のうちとう取得しゅとくできる場合ばあいがあります。
There are circumstances in which one can obtain agriculture land and such irrespective of license.

8. 生体せいたいサンプルによらず血液けつえき使つかってリアルタイムでガンの検査けんさ出来できるようになりました。
It has become possible to do cancer screening in real time by using blood and not by using a biological sample.

Spelling Note: ガン may also be spelled as 癌.

9. 法律ほうりつによらず顔認証装置かおにんしょうそうち使用しようすることはあきらかに違法いほうなのです。
The use of face recognition apparatuses irrespective of the law is clearly unlawful.

10. 何人なんにんも、ほう適正てきせい手続てつづきによらずに、生命せいめい自由じゆう、または財産ざいさんうばわれることはない。
All people will never be robbed of one’s life, freedom, or property without due process of the law.

Typically, whenever the noun in question is an interrogative phrase such as 誰, 何, 何事, etc. it can be interpreted as meaning “regardless of/no matter…”

11. 何事なにごとによらず、いつでも相談そうだんしてください。
Regardless of whatever it is, please consult with me at any time.

12. おとうとなにによらず臆病おくびょうなところがとても心配しんぱいです。
I am very worried about how my little brother is timid regardless of what it is.

によらず can be seen as によらない at the end of a sentence. This grammatical situation is very indicative of the written language. The grammatical pattern itself is already quite stiff and formal. This was also the case with にかかわらない, but because that pattern is not used at the end of a sentence, によらない makes up for this.

13. 参加さんか可否かひ年齢ねんれいによらない。
Consideration of participation is irrespective of age.

There are quite a few common set phrases that utilize the meaning of “irrespective of…” For instance, the translation of “You can’t judge a book by its cover” uses this meaning of によらず. These phrases utilize this pattern at the end of the sentence.

14. ひとによらず。
You can’t judge a book by its cover/a man can’t be judged by his appearance.

15. 吉凶きっきょうひとによりてにちによらず。 
Fortune comes by one’s action, not by the day.

Sentence Note: Ex. 15 shows how the meanings of “by” and indicating relation can blend together and are one of the same thing. Ex. 15 shows that there is always agency involved with によらず, or more specifically, the lack thereof. 


(の)いかん can be inserted before either にかかわらず, を問わず, によらず with hardly any change in meaning these patterns. いかん, written as 如何 in 漢字, means “circumstance” as in “how” situation X is. Interestingly enough, いかん can directly attach to nouns, making the particle の completely optional.


 With にもかかわらず, (の)いかん typically follows words that involve multiple parts or selections. (の)いかん can only be added to nouns. These nouns, naturally, deal with circumstance. The nouns that are best with にかかわらず can be standalone nouns that refer to a single entity (ex. 契約 = Contract). It’s also common with nouns created by pairing two things together like 有無 (existence or nonexistence). It is also great with nouns with indeterminate amount of outcomes such as 結果 (results) and 内容 (content). It isn’t, however, used with lists of three or more nouns.

16. 採否さいひ(の)いかんにかかわらず、結果けっか郵便ゆうびんでおらせいたします。 
We will notify you of the results via mail whether you are recruited or not.

17. 法律内容ほうりつないよう(の)いかんにかかわらず、売春ばいしゅん種々しゅじゅ接客業せっきゃくぎょうむすいて多様たよう形態けいたいりつつ存在そんざいしている。
Regardless of the legal circumstances, prostitution is connected to various service trades and exists in diverse forms.

18. 検査けんさ結果けっかいかんにかかわらず、早急さっきゅうにご報告差ほうこくさげます。
Regardless of the examination results, we will report them to you immediately.

19. 国籍こくせき(の)いかんにかかわらず、優秀ゆうしゅう人材じんざいもとめております。
We are seeking excellent talented people irrespective of nationality.

20. 調査ちょうさ結果けっかいかんにかかわらず、ご連絡れんらくください。
Regardless of the results of the investigation, please contact me/us.

21. 履歴書等の応募書類は、結果いかんにかかわらず、ご返却いたしませんので、ご了承ください。
We do not return application documents such as one’s resume regardless of one’s results, so please understand this.

22. 検査けんさ結果けっかいかんにかかわらず、インフルエンザのような症状しょうじょうがあれば、周囲しゅういひとにうつす可能性かのうせいがあります。
Regardless of the results of your examination, if you have symptoms like that of the flu, there is the possibility that you may spread (the illness) to those around you.

23. 乳牛及び肉用牛農家の全てに立入検査を実施し、疑いのある症状を発見した場合は、検査を行うとともに検査の結果いかんにかかわらず、全て焼却処分され、食肉や肉骨粉の形で流通することがないようにします。
Site inspections of the entirety of farmhouses, both milk cows and beef cattle, are to be implemented; in the case that it is suspected that symptoms have been detected, all (cows) are to be incinerated along with examination regardless of the examination’s results, and efforts will be made to make sure that none of it is circulated in the form of meat and/or meat-and-bone meal.

24. 国民投票こくみんとうひょう結果けっかいかんにかかわらず、財政赤字ざいせいあかじ成長停滞せいちょうていたいという経済問題けいざいもんだいわらない。
Regardless of the results of a national referendum, the economic problems involving the budget deficit and slowdown in economic growth won’t change. 


を問わず itself is used most with nouns that refer to two or more elements. Unlike with にかかわらず, を問わず can be used with three or more nouns. This can be seen in Ex 25. 

25. 学歴がくれき年齢ねんれい性別せいべつ過去かこ実績じっせきのいかんをわず、初任給しょにんきゅう一律いちりつです。
Regardless of one’s education, age, sex, or past accomplishments, initial salary is at a flat rate.

26. 国籍こくせきのいかんをわず、どなたでも参加さんかできます。
Anyone can participate regardless of nationality.

27. 理由りゆうのいかんをわず、無断欠席むだんけっせきゆるされません。
Whatever the reason, truancy is impermissible.

28. 事業所じぎょうしょ使用材料しようざいりょうのいかんをわず分類ぶんるいされる。
Enterprises are categorized irrespective of materials used.

29. 損害発生そんがいはっせい原因げんいんいかんをわず、責任せきにん一切負いっさいおわない。
Regardless of the cause of the breakage, we are not responsible whatsoever.

30. 国家こっか必要ひつよう事業じぎょう利益りえきのいかんをわず、実際じっさい利益りえきげるようにす(る)べきだ。
We ought to make sure to actually increase the profits of industries that are necessary for the nation regardless of their (current) profit.

31. 事実じじついかんをわず名誉毀損めいよきそんうったえられる。
To be sued for libel irrespective of the facts.

32. 会員かいいんは、理由りゆうのいかんをわず、本規定ほんきていもとづく一切いっさい権利及けんりおよ義務ぎむについて、これを第三者だいさんしゃ譲渡ゆずりわたし、担保たんぽようきょうすることはできません。
A member transfers all rights and obligations founded in these provisions to the third-party beneficiary and cannot use them as collateral for whatever reason. 


  によらず’s main function is to deny dependence. The words that are associated with things that people depend on, whether it be means by which they do things or whether it be things that people rely on, the purpose of によらず is to state that situation Y is not dependent on them. によらず is actually more commonly used with (の)いかん than it is without it. The use of いかん helps facilitate rejecting that a Y circumstance is dependent on an X circumstance.

33. 理由りゆうのいかんによらず、殺害さつがいゆるされないことである。
Murder is not permissible for any reason whatsoever.

34. 理由りゆうのいかんによらず、試験開始後しけんかいしご入室にゅうしつみとめません。
Entry once the exam has begun will not be approved for any reason whatsoever.

35. 理由りゆうのいかんによらず、10じっ分以上遅刻ぷんいじょうちこくした場合ばあい試験しけんけられません。
You will not be able to take the exam in the event you are late ten minutes or longer whatever the reason may be.

36. 理由りゆうのいかんによらず、欠勤けっきん欠勤けっきんであります。
An absence from work is an absence whatever the reason.

37. ジュバのぞみなみスーダンへの渡航とこうは、目的もくてきのいかんによらず延期えんきしてください。
Please postpone voyage to South Sudan, excluding the city of Juba, whatever your objective may be.

38. 一旦受理いったんじゅりした書類しょるいはいかんによらず返還へんかんいたしません。
We will not return documentation that has been accepted whatever the reason may be.

39. 理由りゆうのいかんによらず、良品りょうひん返品へんぴんはおりできません。
We cannot accept the return of non-defective products whatever the reason may be.

40. 出席欠席しゅっせきけっせきのいかんによらず、かならずメールで返事へんじをするようおねがいたします。
Whether you attend or are absent, we ask that you please reply via e-mail regardless.