第401課: Phonetic Respellings of Uncommon Kanji

The Japanese Language Council (国語審議会) issued a report in 1956 which proposed the substitution of Kanji in Sino-Japanese compounds not in the 当用漢字表 at the time to homophonous characters within reason. This was a compromise to suggesting that such words be avoided altogether or written in a half-Kanji, half-Kana manner (see 交ぜ書き). Not even 30 years later, however, the 当用漢字表 was abolished and replaced with the 常用漢字表, and its influence on the general public was also largely diminished as a consequence. 

The act of substituting one Kanji for another is by nature altering the original spelling of that word, and given how Kanji primarily express meaning over sound, the proposal has been mostly unsuccessful. However, how successful a replacement spelling is widely varies from word to word, which you surely have noticed in your Japanese studies. 

※This lesson is under revision. Because its content is being improved, it will remain viewable to provide more accurate content to you. 

Substitute Kanji 代用字

One concept introduced by the Japanese Language Council was the use of what are called 代用字, substitute Kanji that unilaterally replace a certain Kanji for the sole reason that it was not included in the 当用漢字表. One of the best examples of this is replacing 稀 (rare) with 希 (hope). Although the Kanji have completely different meanings, they both possess the ON reading キ. Furthermore, there are no contexts in which the two Kanji would overlap, allowing for this replacement to be made without causing undue confusion. 

意味本来 書き換え 意味 本来 書き換え
Diluted 稀薄  Scarce 稀少 

More so than not, unconditional replacement was deemed inappropriate for Kanji with multiple meanings. In this case, only meanings with a reasonable substitution were affected. Whenever 書き換え is limited to only some words made with a particular substitution as seen in the third column, the resultant words are called 代用語. 

表外字 意義 書き替え可能 書き換え不可
 ①To part from (someone)②Secret/mystery  訣別→ 別  Separation/farewell 秘訣 → 秘決 XSecret/mystery
 澱 ①Sediment②Starch 沈澱 → 殿Sedimentation 澱粉 → 殿粉 XStarch
 撥 ①To recoil②The sound ん   反撥 → 反Opposition/repulsion 撥音 → 発音 XThe sound ん
 ①To overturn②Top/peak 顚倒 → 倒To fall down/overturn 顚末 → 転末 XCourse of events
All②Complicated綜合 → 合Integration 錯綜 → 錯総 XIntricacy

Though 書き換え were largely brought about my replacing rare Kanji altogether, there are also examples of multiple existing spelling being unified into one spelling, and the spelling chose was chosen because the Kanji in question was in the 当用漢字表.

意義 統一前 統一後
Starvation 飢餓・ 饑餓   
 Entreaty 嘆願・歎願 
 Abrasion 摩滅・磨滅 
 Ore 鉱石・礦石 

The Japanese Language Council in 1956 specifically called for hundreds of 書き換え to be implemented. The success of each example, though, is varied. Some substitutions have become so predominant that speakers today rarely know of the original spelling, while there are others where the substitution is unheard of. 

Ever since the government has removed the compulsiveness behind these spellings, indicating that one day in the future it may reverse course altogether, the overall rate of use of 書き換え is notably decreasing. This is especially the case in literature in which authors are largely pushing for the resurgence of traditional spellings.

Contrary to this movement, however, no sooner had the council produced its own list of words which had actual influence on the publications made by the government and media outlets, newspapers and scientific institutions took it upon themselves to expand the number of 書き換え to twice the number originally intended. The purpose of this was to maintain the number of words that could be written in Kanji fully without having to use synonyms or a mixed-Kanji/mixed-Kana spelling. These spellings tend to be far more pervasive due to the influence newspaper and academia had on the general pubic, but ever since the obligation of these institutions to use those spellings has disappeared, many still choose to use traditional spellings. 

Examples 使用例

In the example sentences below, each instance of 書き換え will be underlined. Very common spellings will be in bold while words with low frequency will not. To the right in parentheses, you will see the prior/alternative spelling. Likewise, if said spelling is common, it will be in bold; however, if it has become moribund/rare, it will be marked with a question mark.  

1. 今学期より漢詩暗誦(→諳誦?)スキルという授業が開かれます。

    A new course called “Chinese Poem Recitation” will be held starting this semester. 

2. 去年のハロウィンで、ナチスの軍服を連想させるとされる衣装(→衣裳)を着たアイドルグループがイスラエルから抗議を受けるというニュースがあった。
There was a news report in last year’s Halloween about a pop idol group which wore outfits reminiscent of Nazi military uniforms.  

3. 厳しい入学試験に合格して入学してくるほど英才(→穎才?)であれば、そうした学生はすでに大学教育に相応しい学力を持っているでしょう。
If someone is the kind of genius who is admitted into a university after having passed a harsh entry exam, that student already has the academic ability becoming of a college education. 

4. 比喩や陰影(→陰翳)に富んだ文章だからこそ、読者の方々の心に響かせるでしょう。
Because it is a such a prose filled with metaphors and subtleties, it is sure to reverberate in the minds of readers. 

5. 古代の英知(→叡智)は素晴らしいなと思っています。
I think that ancient wisdom is amazing. 

6. 長い暗夜(→闇夜)にも必ず夜明けがある。
Dawn will always break even for the longest of dark nights. 

7. 既に支出した治療費と今後かかるであろう治療費を含めてこれから加害者に慰謝料(→慰藉料)を求めようと思っています。
I intend to hereafter seek reparation from the perpetrator for medical expenditures I’ve already incurred as well as those I expect to incur in the future. 

8. 格闘(→挌闘 ?)技を習いたいと思っているのですが、なかなかどれを選べばいいのか分かりません。
I’d like to study martial arts, but I’m not quite sure which one I should choose.

9. 肝心(→肝腎)なところをしっかりと理解してほしい。
I want you to firmly understand the essentials.

10. 家が腫れ上げる火炎(→火焔)に飲まれて瞬く間に爆発した。
The home was swallowed in bellowing flames and exploded in an instant. 

11. 彼は見ての通り元気で活発(→活潑?)な少年です。
As you can see, he is a lively and active youth.

12. 度重なる奇跡(→奇蹟)に驚きました。
I was surprised at the repeated miracles.

13. もし凶器(→兇器)を持って「殺すぞ」と脅した時、相手が「やってみな」などと言い返したとします。 
Let’s suppose that you threaten someone by saying “I’ll kill you” while holding a deadly weapon and your opponent retorts back “I’d like to see you try.”

14. 漁労(→漁撈?)設備が船ごとに異なるのは仕方がない。

It can’t be helped that fishing equipment differ from ship to ship.

15. 技量(→伎倆?)を磨くために更さらなる研修が必要だ。

Further training is needed to improve skills. 

16. 海外の行政区画(→区劃)を「県」と訳す基準は何でしょうか。
What is the standard for translating overseas administrative districts as “prefectures”?

17. 鬼怒川の防波堤が決壊(→決潰)し、家が次々と濁流に飲まれてしまった。
The Kinugawa seawall broke and house after house was swallowed up by a muddy stream. 

18. 3本の運河の掘削(→掘鑿?)量を減らすために、幾つかの人造湖を作る計画が出された。
A plan to construct several man-made lakes was brought up to reduce the amount of excavation work for the three canals. 

19. 政府に搾取され続けてきた国民が決起(→蹶起?)して与党幹部らを打倒だとうすることに成功した。
The citizens, who had continued to be exploited by the government, succeeded in overthrowing the party leaders by rising to action.

20. 日本は1951年9月8日にサンフランシス講和(→媾和)条約を締結し占領から開放され正式に終戦となった。
Japan entered into the Treaty of San Francisco on September 8th, 1951, which released Japan from occupation and officially ended the war.

21. この道の特色のひとつは比較的に険阻(→嶮岨?)な坂道が多いことである。
One characteristic of this road is that there is a lot of relatively steep slopes.

22. 所得税控除(→ 扣除?)を受けるためには、確定申告の手続きを行う必要があります。
In order to receive an income tax credit, having a final tax form done is necessary. 

23. 経営に関する広範(→広汎)な知識(→智識)を身につける使命を持っているんです。
I have a mission to acquire far-reaching knowledge in management.

24. ヒトの骨格(骨骼?)とチンパンジーの骨格と比べてみましょう。
Let’s compare the skeletal structures of humans and chimpanzees.

25. 自分と大差ないと思う、きっかけ一つ間違えただけだと思うのに、貴子と彼女たちとの間には、厳然(→儼然?)たる違いがあった。
Although Takako felt they weren’t so different from herself, and although she felt that they had only messed up on one chance, there was a solemn difference between them and her.  
From 凍える牙 by 乃南アサ.

26. 駅に向かって歩きながら、貴子の中で奇妙な興奮(→亢奮?・昂奮?)が湧き起こっていた。
As Takako walked toward the train station, a curious excitement welled up inside her.
From 凍える牙 by 乃南アサ.  

27. 世界の資源が枯渇(→涸渇)しつつある。

The world’s resources are running dry.

28. 雇用(→雇傭?)証明書を提出してください。
Please submit employment verification.

29. 雑踏(→雑沓?)対策が軽視されていた。
Congestion countermeasures had been neglected.

30. 工事現場で散水(→撒水?)車を運転する。
To drive a sprinkler truck at a construction site.

31. 死んだ後も、朽ちることのない死体(→屍体)と化かしてしまったのだった。
Even after death, he transformed into a corpse which experienced no decay.

32. あの頃ころは、刑事ごっこをしているようで、新たな刺激(→刺戟)に包まれつつも、何とも気楽なものだった。
At that time, it seemed like (she) was playing detective, and while she was surrounded with new stimuli, she was quite at ease.
From 凍える牙 by 乃南アサ.

33. 自分が今まで信じ、支えにしていたものは根底(→根柢)から覆されてしまった。
What I had believed and supported was overturned from the ground up.

34. 高額車両(→車輛)を輸送する場合に輸送コストは割高になってしまうが、セキュリティー上の理由から利用されることが多い。
Transporting high-cost rail cars means transport costs are comparatively high, but they’re used a lot for security reasons.

35. 意識して前向きに思考することが必要なのは不安と恐怖と焦燥(→焦躁?)感に駆られているときなどでしょう。

It is necessary to consciously think positively whenever one is frantic with anxiety, fear, and impatience.

36. 名簿から名前を消却(→銷却?)くする。
To erase one’s name from the register.

37. 集落(→聚落?)が全焼し200人が犠牲となった。
The whole settlement burned down, resulting in 200 victims.

38. 郵便書簡(→書翰?)とは封筒兼用の便箋のことです。
A letter-card is letter paper combined with an envelope.

39. 最初の試練(→試煉?)にチャレンジしたが失敗に終わった。
I challenged the first trial, but I ended in failure.

40. 中国は21世紀になっても膨張(→膨脹)主義で隣国を次々と侵食(→浸蝕)していった。
Even into the 21st century, China eroded into its neighboring countries one after another under expansionism.

41. 沖縄に対する偏向が日本社会に浸透(→滲透?)している。
A bias toward Okinawa has percolated into Japanese society.

42. 扇情(→煽情)的な見出しの記事のほうが読者を増やすのが当たり前だ。
It’s only natural that sensational headlines are what increases readers.

43. 路上で私服警官に尋問(→訊問)を受ける。
To be questioned by a plain‐clothes officer on the street.

44. この部分の伸長(→伸暢?)は、土壌中でのみ起こり、光が当たると停止してしまう。
The elongated growth of this area only occurs when it is in soil and halts whenever light hits it. 

45. 政府主催の全国戦没(→戦歿?)者追悼式が行われた。
A government sponsored national memorial service for war dead was held. 

46. 職務上の権限を越えた専断(→擅断)的な行為をしてはならない。
One mustn’t commit arbitrary acts that go beyond the authority of one’s work duties.

47. 繊細な金属象眼(→象嵌)で草花の模様を表す。
To represent a flower design with delicate metal inlay. 

48. 義理と人情の相克(→相剋)に悩む。
To be distressed over the rivalry between duty and humanity.

49. 暖房(→煖房?)を付けると電気代がぐんと上がってしまう。
One’s electric bill drastically goes up when the heater is turned on.

50. 心理学の知識(→智識)を生かす仕事って何でしょう。
What are some jobs that utilize knowledge in psychology?

51. Wordでの注釈(→註釈)の付け方がわかりません。 
I don’t know how to add annotations in Word.

52. 決して進歩を阻止(→咀止?)するためではない。
It is never to obstruct progress.

53. 侵入者を掃滅(→剿滅?)せよ。

Annihilate (the) intruders. 

54. 専門的かつ総合(→綜合?)的な意見を取とり纏めました。
I have compiled expert and comprehensive opinion (on the matter).

55. 一人一人のお客さんと丁寧(→叮嚀)に向き合って仕事をすることが大事です。
It is important to work while facing each and every customer politely. 

56. 転倒(→顚倒)しない限り、ガソリンが出てくることはないはずです。
So long as you don’t tumble (in it), there shouldn’t ever be gasoline coming out of it.

57. 米軍の犯罪を暴露(→曝露)したマニング一等兵が20の容疑について有罪の評決を受けた。
Private First Class Officer Manning received a guilty verdict on twenty counts for exposing US military crimes.

58. 背徳(→悖徳?)行為をしなくても罪悪感を持つことはあります。
There are times I have a sense of guilt even when I don’t do something immoral.

59. 各地で反乱(→叛乱)が起きている。
Revolts are happening everywhere.

60. ワインはブドウを発酵(→醗酵?)させて作ります。
Wine is made by fermenting grapes.

61. 気に入っているフレーズを抜粋(→抜萃?)して一冊の本にする。
To turn phrases one likes and has extracted into a book.

62. ノースウェスト準州に点在する町から町への航空輸送が途絶(→杜絶?)したら、多くの人が孤立状態になってしまい、深刻な食糧不足に直面せざるを得ないだろう。
If air transport between town and town dotting the Northwest Territories were suspended, many people would be isolated and would have to face severe food shortage.

63. トランプ大統領は就任したら間もなく、オバマ前政権の方針を踏襲(→蹈襲?)しない意向(→意嚮?)を正式に表明した。 
No sooner after President Trump had taken office, he officially expressed his intent not to follow suit with Former President Obama’s policies. 

64. インターネット上の流言飛語(→蜚語?)に対する規制の是非を理論的に検討すべく、討論会が行われた。
A debate took place to logically consider the pros and cons of regulations on wild groundless Internet rumors

65. 常日頃から寿司屋とかで『あがり』などの符丁(→符牒)を使う人を恥ずかしく思わないんですか。

Aren’t you ashamed of people who always use the coded speech of venues such as sushi restaurants, for example, “agari (for tea).”  

66. 一緒に課題を考え、一緒に解決の道を模索(→摸索?)しましょう。
Together, let’s think of tasks and fumble for ways of solving them.  

67. 硬いまま無理やり包丁(→庖丁)で切っていました。
I was forcibly cutting it with a kitchen knife while it was still hard.

68. 犯人は、コンビニから商品を略奪(→掠奪)したりパトカーに火をつけたりしていたということです。
 The criminal I said to have plundered a convenience store, set a police car on fire, and other things.

69. 湾曲(→彎曲?)した海岸線が見えてきた。

A curved coastline came into view.

70. アラブ連合共和国は1958年にエジプト共和国とシリア共和国と連合(→聯合?)して作られた国家でした。
The United Arab Republic was a nation created in 1958 by the unification of the Republic of Egypt and the Syrian Republic.  

71. そうしたら、何が正しいのかという理性的な観点に立って、つまり理屈(→理窟)に適った説明ができ、相手を説得できるでしょう。
And then, when you take a logical point of view of what’s correct, in other words, when you can make an explanation that’s rational, you should be able to persuade your opponent.

72. 溶接(→熔接)環境における換気設備のメンテでは、サービス技術者の安全を確保する必要があります。
It is necessary to secure the safety of service technicians during maintenance on the ventilation equipment in the welding environment.

73. 野卑(→野鄙?)な言葉遣いは絶対にいけません。
Vulgar speech is never tolerable.

74. トランプ氏は13日、政権の要となる次期首席大統領補佐(→輔佐?)官に共和党全国委員長のラインス・プリーバス氏を起用すると発表しました。 
On the 13th, Mr. Trump announced that he will appoint Reince Priebus, Republican National Committee Chairman, to be his administration’s pivotal appointee as the President Elect’s White House Chief of Staff.   

75. 彼女は昌代の包帯(→繃帯?)を巻かれた手をさすり、「怖かったわよね」「痛かったでしょう」などと言った。

She stroked the bandaged hands of Masayo as she repeatedly said, “I bet it was so scary” and “I’m sure it hurt.”
From 凍える牙 by 乃南アサ. 

76. つまり、今回の事件については、ホシの輪郭(→輪廓)が非常に摑みにくいということだった。
In other words, for this case, it was going to be extremely difficult to get a hold of a sketch of the perpetrator.
From 凍える牙 by 乃南アサ.

77. 木原刑事は光畑容疑者の気迫(→気魄)に押されて後ずさりした。
Detective Kihara recoiled from being intimidated by the zeal of the suspect Mitsuhata.

78. 一般の角度に対する三角関数(→函数)を得るためには、三角関数について成り立つ何らかの定理を指針として、定義の拡張を行う必要がある。
In order to get a trigonometric function for a general angle, it’s necessary that you expand its definition by using some theorem which holds as an index.  

From the Wikipedia page on 三角関数.

79. 母親が委縮?(→萎縮)したり、謝ったりする必要はありません。
There is no need for mother to cower or apologize.

80. 両手に鉄の亜鈴(→啞鈴?)を持ち上げる。
To lift an iron dumbbell with both hands.

81. 猫は、回虫(→蛔蟲?)を持ったネズミや小鳥といった小動物を食べた場合や、感染した母猫の乳を子猫が飲んだ場合などにも、回虫に感染することがある。
Cats may be infected with roundworms by eating mice, small birds, and other small animals with them and kittens may also be infected by drinking milk from their mothers if infected.

82. 犯則嫌疑者が逃避もしくは証拠を隠滅(→湮滅?)する恐れがあって緊急を要する場合には、事後に令状交付を請求することができる。
When there is an urgent concern that a tax evader may flee or destroy evidence, you are able to request a warrant a posteriori.

83. 東日本大震災の復興支援のために義援(→義捐?)金を寄付しました。
I donated contributions for the recovery efforts for the Great East Japan Earthquake.

84. 薫蒸?(→燻蒸)とは有害生物を駆除する方法のひとつです。

Fumigation is one way of exterminating pests.

85. 私のことなんですが、敬謙?(→敬虔)な無神論者と言っていいかもしれません。
Although this is about me, it’s probably safe to call me a pious atheist.

86. 激高(→激昂?)して審判(員)を狙って投げつける。

To indignantly target and pelt an umpire/referee.

87. 鉄鋼関連の合弁(→合辦)事業契約を結ぶ。

 To sign a steel-related joint venture contract.

88. 上陸作戦を成功させるには、橋頭保?(→橋頭堡)を築くことが不可欠な条件である。

In order to make a landing operation succeed, establishing a bridgehead is an essential condition.

89. 一度見たら忘れられない均整(→均斉)の取れた形と色になっています。
It has a balanced form and color that you won’t be able to forget just by looking at it once.

90. 私が借りようとしている借家ですが、立地が三差路(→三叉路)に面した場所です。
Although this is about the rental home I’m trying to rent, it’s the place where the lot faces a three-forked road.

91. 肩甲骨(→肩胛骨)の筋肉を動かして刺激することで基礎代謝があがる。
Moving and stimulating the muscles of the scapula raises one’s basal metabolism.

92. 世界中の共産主義者はロシアや中国などといった国々に幻惑(→眩惑)されていた。
The communists of the world had been enchanting by countries such as Russia and China.

93. 今回のケースでは、暴行が複数回に及んでいたため、禁固禁錮)150年の判決となった模様だ。
In this case, because the assaults had amounted to several times, the verdict was a 150 year prison sentence.

94. 第四十七条  機構は、救済給付の支給に要する費用に充てるため、石綿の使用量、指定疾病の発生の状況その他たの事情を勘案して政令で定める要件に該当する事業主から、毎年度、特別拠出(→醵出?)金を徴収する。
From the 石綿による健康被害の救済に関する法律
Article 47: The Agency will impose special contributions annually to business owners who meet the requirements prescribed by the ordinance—taking into consideration the usage amount of asbestos, outbreak conditions of designated diseases, and other circumstances—in order to allot the costs for providing relief benefits. 

95. きょうは、前回と異なる種類のキュウリも同じ環境に順化(→馴化)するか検証してみたが、驚くことに二酸化炭素濃度の低下が実生の光合成に悪影響を及ぼしてしまって、成長を妨げたことがわかりました。
Today, we tested to see whether a different species of cucumber would accumulate to the same environment as the last one, but to our surprise, we found out that the decrease in the density of carbon dioxide had adverse effects on the photosynthesis of the seedlings, impairing its growth.  

96. こういう事件が今でも多発していることに鑑みると、純朴(→醇朴?)すぎて利用されまくるという人が世間には多いことに危惧を覚えるでしょう。
In the light of this sort of incident occurring frequently even now, you get apprehended with the sense of uneasiness that there is a lot of people in this world that are too naïve and constantly used.

97. 心拍(→心搏)数すうを測るためには、心拍計を使えばわかるはずです。
To measure heart rate, you should be able to figure it out by using a heart rate monitor.

98. 鳥観(→鳥瞰)図を英語に訳すと何と言うんでしょうか。
How would you translate “bird’s-eye view” into English?

99. もう一度抽選(→抽籤)してみたが、また落ちてしまった。
 I cast a lot once more, but I lost again.

100. きのう、石川淳という作家の新書版選集(→撰集)を手に入れました。
I obtained a selection of new published works of the author Jun Ishikawa.

101. 私もパク・クネ政権に断固(→断乎)として反対です。
I am also adamantly against Park Geun Hye’s administration.

102. 中国政府も他の国と同じように、何故トランプ氏がこんなに強く台頭(→擡頭)してきたのかすっかり困惑しているに違いない。
The Chinese government, in the same way as other nations, is also no doubt utterly puzzled as to why Mr. Trump has so strongly come to the forefront.  

103. いつも饒舌な私が思わず無言になってしまった。
I myself, who am always verbose, went silent.

104. 昔ながらの伝統を順守(→遵守)しながらも、現代でしか味わえない感覚をも追求し、人生をより色彩豊かにすることができる。
One is able to have a richer colorful life by also pursuing sensations only possible to experience in the present whilst acting in accordance to time-honored traditions.  

105. 廃虚(→廃墟)が崩れ始めたところ、魔法の絨毯が来てくれた。  
Just when the ruins began to crumble, a magic carpet came to the rescue.

106. 宝くじに当選(→当籤?)したら翌年の税金はどうなるんだろう。
I wonder what my taxes would be like the next year after winning the lottery.

107. 俳諧は、基本的には社会に対して否定的な風諭(→風喩)を含まない。
Haikai poems, as a rule, do not contain negative allegories toward society.

108. 弁髪(→辮髪?)は男子だんしが頭髪を剃り、後頭部だけを長く伸して編み、背後に長く垂らす髪型のことである。
The queue is a male hairstyle with the head shaven, the hair at the back of the head lengthened and braided and hanging long down the back.  

109. テロに対しての防圧(→防遏?)は、人によって築かれ、人によって守られる。
Hindrance against terrorism is built by people and protected by people.

110. 甘あまくて芳純(→芳醇)なワインを楽しましょう。
Enjoy sweet and mellow wine.

111. 白亜紀(白堊紀?)を代表する恐竜といえば、T・レックスでしょう。
Speaking of a dinosaur that represents the Cretaceous Period, there’s T Rex.

112. 通貨危機が波乱(波瀾)を巻き起こしている。
The monetary crisis is causing a storm of troubles.

113. 浅学にして非才(→菲才の身み。
Lack of learning is a lack of ability.

114. インドを統治するイギリス人の世界観を披歴(→披瀝)する映画である。
This is a movie which reveals the worldview of Englishmen who ruled India.

115. 下記が加齢による拍動(→搏動)の変化を示す図表である。
Below is a chart which shows the change in heart beat due to aging.

116. 漂然(→飄然)として風の如ごとく消きえ去さる。
To fade away aimlessly like the wind.

This is thought to be an amplification of the fundamentals of Christianity.

118. 母指(→拇指)対向性とは霊長類の特徴の一つである。
The ability to oppose the thumb is one characteristic of primates.

119. どんな明美(→明媚)な山水でも近寄ってみれば小汚ない雑草などがその下地になって裾を引いているのでしょう。
No matter how scenic landscape may be, when you approach it, you will surely see that dirty weeds and such form the groundwork of the scenery and trail the bottom of it.

120. その魚は乱獲(→濫獲)のため絶滅危惧種となっている。
That fish has become an endangered species due to overfishing.

121. 解雇権を乱用(→濫用)すると、解雇は無効となる。
If you abuse the right to discharge (an employee), the discharge becomes invalid.

122. 金持ちの家に生まれた子供は必ずしも財産を乱費(→濫費)するとは限らない。
Children who are born in wealthy households do not always necessarily reckless spend their fortunes.

123. 彼は夜景に見惚れて、欄干(→欄杆?)に凭れて佇んだ。

He stood and gazed in wonder at the nightscape while leaning against the bannister.

124. 和人(→倭人)が単純に日本人になったと断言できない。
One cannot affirmatively state that the “Wajin” simply became the Japanese people.

125. 各製品の留出(→溜出)温度を推定するモデルの開発を進めている。
(They are) furthering development of a model to estimate the distillation temperature of each product.

Separate Words Written the Same   書き換えによって混同される熟語

While attempting to lower the number of Kanji, once separate words may now be seen written the same way. Not too many words were affected. For those that are in bold in the left column, most speakers have reverted to distinguishing them. 

本来の熟語 書き換え後
記章: Insignia used to commemorate something.徽章: Badge indicating affiliation.  記章
奇談: Strange stories.
綺談: Well-crafted stories. 
教戒: Admonishing.
教誨: Doing pastoral work to prisoners. 
混迷: Being bewildered.
昏迷: Being in a coma. 
洗浄: (Religious) cleansing.
洗滌: Cleaning with water/medicine. Originally read as せんでき.
生息: Living one’s life; plant habitation.
棲息: (Animal) habitation.
先端: End of a long object.尖端: Tip of something sharp. 先端
収集: To scrape/gather together.蒐集: To collect things out of interest.  収集
障壁: Obstruction.
牆壁: Fences walls.
膨大: サ変 verb meaning “to become larger.” 
厖大: Adjectival noun meaning “vast/colossal.” 
保育: Raising a child. 哺育: Mammalian nursing.  保育
妨害: Roadway obstruction.
妨碍・妨礙: Causing harm to/obstructing someone.
珍事: Rare event.
椿事: (Negative) unexpected occurrence. 
破棄: Ridding of an agreement/contract.
破毀: Repealing a ruling upon appeal.  

126. トランプ氏は本当にロシアの選挙妨害(→妨礙?)を認めるのか。

Will Mr. Trump really admit to Russian obstruction in the election?

127. これは名誉棄損?(→毀損)罪に問われる内容でしょうか。
Is this the sort of stuff one can be accused of libel for?

128. 洗浄(→洗滌?)剤や塩素系漂白剤などを誤って飲んだ時、すぐに水で口をすすいでから、コップ1~2杯の牛乳または水を飲んでください。
When you accidentally ingest detergent or chlorine bleach, immediately rinse your mouth with water and then drink one or two cups of milk or water.    

129. 様々な生物の生息(→棲息)分布が大きく変わってしまったら生態系が段々と壊れていくのだろう。
If the habitats of various creatures were to greatly change, the ecosystem would likely gradually collapse.

130. 韓国の朴大統領は慰安婦問題が日本との外交の障壁(→牆壁 X)になっていると発言した。
South Korea President Park remarked that the issue of comfort women was an obstacle in diplomacy with Japan.

131. お手数ですがメールを破棄(→破毀 X)してくださいますようお願いいたします。
We apologize for the trouble, but we ask that you would please destroy e-mails.