第370課: ～ために III: ～んがために & ～がために
In this lesson, we will return our focuses to the phrase ～ために once more. This time, we will learn how this phrase can be preceded by the particle が instead of the usual particle の when after nominal phrases. In doing so, we will look at three different patterns.
- N + ～がために
- V + ～んがために
- V + ～がために
As hinted at by the introduction above, が is instrumental in having what precedes it be a nominal phrase. If it is already a noun, no further analysis is required. If the phrase is verbal, then that verb is deemed to be nominalized to allow ～ために to follow.
Archaic Use of が: 連体修飾格
In the past, the particles が and の shared far more interchangeability than they do today. It was once possible to use が to mark an attribute to the same degree の does today. Nowadays, this is limited to particular words (mostly place names) and grammatical structures. As が’s use with ～ために in this fashion is a given, below are a handful of examples found in words still used commonly today.
Onigashima (Island of Ogres)
Terminology Note: As indicated by the title of this section, this use of ga in linguistic terms is referred to as the 連体修飾格 (adnominal modifier case).
Noun + ～がために
When ～がために directly follows a noun, it is essentially the same as ～のために. The only difference is that ～がために is literary and is never used in the spoken language. Other aspects of a sentence also tend to be old-fashioned when it is used. Depending on what kind of noun precedes it, ～がために can either mark an objective or a cause/reason.
For whom do stocks rise?
Word Note: 誰が為 should not be read as だれがため. 誰 was originally た, and this pronunciation is preserved in this expression.
I was blindly living my days not knowing what I was living for.
Since (he) was far away from the capital, he was unable to render assistance to Genki.
From 魚玄機 by 森鷗外.
Word Note: 京師 is an outdated term that can refer to old capitals of countries which use(d) Chinese characters. Thus, in context it can refer to cities such as Beijing, Xi’an, Seoul, Kyoto, etc.
Due to his father being poor, he did not receive a proper education.
1. 貧しき is the original 連体形 of the adjective 貧しい. With ～がために following, the phrase 父の貧しき is essentially nominalized, and the use of the particle の is simply for marking the subject of a subordinate clause.
2. なる is the original 連体形 of the adjectival noun 充分だ.
Instead of it being a memorial service for the deceased individual, it was like it was a memorial service for myself.
My initial thought was that the illiterate and ignorant state of our nation Japan was solely due to education not being widespread and that so long as education were scrupulous, we would someday attain a rich and powerful civilization; however, looking at our actual current state, though education has come along well with many having learned to read and there being far from few expert scholars gifted in their particular skills, and though this is the rather accomplished state of what I had previously desired in the first place, it all seems far too little as the evidence for our nation having accomplished forging a rich and powerful civilization.
1. The particle は is seen directly after the 連体形 of the auxiliary verb ～なり—なる. In Classical grammar, it is possible for は to directly follow the 連体形 of a verbal phrase. The Modern Japanese equivalent of ～なるは would be ～であることは. Thus, the verbal phrase is nominalized, allowing ～がため（に） to follow.
2. The particle に is deleted in ～がために due to the presence of the particle のみ.
3. あまねからざる is the 連体形 of the negative form of the Classical adjective あまねし 【遍し／普し】, which did not survive into the modern language. It translates into Modern Japanese as 広く行き渡っている.
4. The auxiliary verb ～べし has various meanings, but in this passage, it is equivalent to できるだろう.
5. ～にてありしが ＝ ～であったが.
6. The ～たる in 達したる and いたしたる is the 連体形 of ～たり, the original 終止形 of the auxiliary verb ～た.
7. なれども = であるけれども.
8. Modern Japanese equivalents of ～が如し include ～と同じだ, ～のようだ, and ～の通りだ. Grammatically speaking, the が used in this expression is the same as in ～がため（に）.
9. The Modern Japanese equivalent of ～とて is ～と言っては.
Verb + ～んがために
In the grammar pattern ～んがために, ～ん is the contracted form of the Classical auxiliary verb ～む, which is the predecessor of the auxiliary verbs of volition ～よう and ～う. Here, ～ん is in the 連体形, which means the verbal phrase it is a part of functions as a noun. As such, ～がために attaches normally. Although unnatural, a literal translation into Modern Japanese of this pattern would be ～ようとすることのために.
As is the case with ～よう and ～う, ～ん follows the 未然形 of verbs. To visualize how this pattern connects to each kind of verb, below is a conjugation chart.
|/eru/-Ichidan Verb||得る ＋ んがために →||得んがために (to gain)|
|/iru/-Ichidan Verb||見る ＋ んがために →||見んがために (to look)|
|/u/-Godan Verb||救う ＋ んがために →||救わんがために (to save)|
|/ku/-Godan Verb||築く ＋ んがために →||築かんがために (to build)|
|/gu/-Godan Verb||稼ぐ ＋ んがために →||稼がんがために (to earn)|
|/su/-Godan Verb||示す ＋ んがために →||示さんがために (to show)|
|/tsu/-Godan Verb||保つ ＋ んがために →||保たんがために (to maintain)|
|/nu/-Godan Verb||死ぬ ＋ んがために →||死なんために (to die)|
|/mu/-Godan Verb||読む ＋ んがために →||読まんがために (to read)|
|/ru/-Godan Verb||成る ＋ んがために →||成らんがために (to become)|
|Suru (Verb)||する ＋ んがために →||せんがために (to do)|
|Kuru||くる ＋ んがために →||こんがために (to come)|
Conjugation Note: 来んがために is essentially not used. In fact, only one search result appears for it in Google. Ex. 20 is an adaptation of this search result. It is worth noting that although this is by no means ungrammatical or necessarily unnatural to say, it is perplexing how this verb in particular is not seemingly used despite it being necessarily mentioned in conjugation notes for this very pattern—both for native learner and foreign learner use.
The basic sentence pattern used for this expression is “A + Vんがために + B.” Whereas “A + Vために + B” either expresses a certain reason/objective A to bring about a certain outcome B,” this pattern emphasizes that B is the only means by which objective A can be accomplished. Thus, it is highly nuanced.
However, it is most often not the case that the speaker would have thought long and hard about the situation to come to the conclusion that is being expressed. Rather, the situation being described is very much “last resort” in feel, and the circumstance the experiencer is facing is mostly a very difficult and/or abnormal dilemma.
This, though, doesn’t mean that the situation overall must be dire or necessarily pressing. There is an almost spontaneous realization on the part of the experiencer that A must be done for B to happen. In other words, the action described in A is usually impulsive and not indicative of planning. A can also be described as a breakthrough action that disrupts the status quo.
As was the case for the uses of ～ために we learned early on in our studies, the particle に can be seen omitted as is often the case for this particle in the written language. This expression can also be seen as ～んがための when used to modify another nominal phrase (Ex. 7).
You can’t move people’s hearts with words only for one’s personal interest.
He moved to Tokyo to fulfill his dreams.
Sentence Note: The act of fulfilling his dreams is not what’s impulsive or last minute about the situation. Rather, it is implied that there must have been a sudden breakthrough on the will of the subject to finally break the status quo and pack his things and head for Tokyo.
He tried out every method to show his thoughts for being against drugs.
I vowed to search desperately for proof to prove his own child’s innocence.
He lost his life trying to save the child.
He did his best every day desperately to pass the Kanken Level 1.
The Prime Minister began to pull strings to get the bill through the Diet.
It is said that (he) did all sorts of maneuvering behind the scenes to become the company president.
There are a lot of people that are studying to just get into a first-rate university.
Many schools were built to educate the masses.
The ruler took strong measures to maintain power.
18. 我々は、 世界の将来に平和と繁栄を築かんがために努力している。
We are endeavoring to build peace and prosperity to the future of the world.
Other times, if there were moments in which to choose the theme of the story to properly correct the shortcomings of the children or to supplement what they lacked, I would surely be able to narrate with that disposition.
From 童話を書く時の心 by 小川未明.
It seems I lowered the quality (of the poem) by unreasonably straining it to bring about the rhyming word #.
Word Note: 韻字 are characters placed at the end of a stanza in Chinese prose to add rhyme.
The “punctuation rules” found in Kanbun were devised in Japan to read Chinese works in a Japanese style.
Culture Note: Kanbun is Classical Chinese literature primarily written by Japanese people.
I am working my utmost to earn my living expenses.
In other words, Jesus took a state in which death was possible to die, therefore possessing flesh and blood just like us.
Sentence Note: It is not implied that Jesus took human form impulsively to die. However, atonement of humanity’s sin via death was a predicate to Jesus’ descent, and taking a form in which it was possible to die was the only means available, which is why 死なんがために is used.
God had no choice but to create love to assess Himself.
Sentence Note: Similarly to Ex. 23, it is not necessarily the case that God’s action in B is a result of A being an impulsive drive. Although this may be true, A should be interpreted more so as B being the only result that could fulfill objective A.
Verb + ～がために
～がために may also be seen directly after verbal expressions in either the non-past or past tense. This is also old-fashioned and almost entirely limited to the written language. Its purpose is to express an atypical reason/cause that brings about an atypical result. It intrinsically does not imply either the reason/cause or the result is a good or bad thing, but it is very subjective in nature due to が functioning as an intensifier. This is because of the exhaustive-listing function of が. In other words, this is a very literary yet emphatic version of the cause marking ～ために.
Grammaticality speaking, the verb phrase that precedes が is essentially nominalized. Although the 連体形 of a verb alone is enough to modify ～ために, the presence が renders it as a noun.
The seizure (of my assets) came close at hand due to the financing I had received.
She tasted the painful experience of not being able to wear what she wanted because she had put on fat in her thighs.
There are also far from few birds who get eaten by predators because they are no longer wary of their surroundings or who end up returning even after being released because they became too tame with people.
He had no choice but to go through life in the shadows due to being born as the son of a murderer.
～がために can also be seen as an emphatic yet literary version of the objective marking ～ために. This usage is less common than the one above, so much so that it is sometimes perceived as a mistake. Using it broadly as a replacement of ～ために, however, would be a misuse of this pattern. Ultimately, the tone given off by this use of ～がために is somewhat “matter-of-fact” but in a very composed and authoritative manner.
(She) felt the urge to wake up in the morning to see the ocean.
From 光の雨 by 立松和平.
If I were to narrate something to children, I would first try to know what kind of children they are. Then, I would see how old there are. I’d choose my story based on that so that they can understand well.
From 童話を書く時の心 by 小川未明.
Therefore, one mustn’t have scruples about the work or be attached to ones riches in order to teach a child.
From 教育の事 by 福沢諭吉.
That young man uses Aozora Bunko every day to read “Japanese books.”
Sentence Note: The ～がために used in this sentence can be seen as marking both a reason and an objective.