第60課: Adjectives IV: 同じ
The adjective for “same” is 同じ, but as it evident from its appearance and conjugations, it acts as if it is a hybrid between an adjective and an adjectival noun. It goes without saying that understanding its etymology is rather important to understanding how it works.
First, we will investigate its past forms and how they have shaped its current usage. Then, we will take a close look into how the modern forms behave. To conclude, we will look at the Sino-Japanese prefix 同～ which has the same meaning.
The History of 同じ
Long ago, 同じ was like any other adjective. Its 終止形 was 同じ and its 連体形 was 同じき.
People may change by coming together, but they all turn to the same ideals as light.
From the school song of Waseda University.
2. 妹も我も心は同じ （終止形）
My wife and I have the same heart (for each other).
From Poem 3978 of the 万葉集
However, this is a drastic simplification of how the word has been used even within older texts. Firstly, when 同じ first appeared in Old Japanese, it had two interchangeable forms: おやじ and おなじ. Furthermore, the practice of using 同じ as both the 終止形 and 連体形 was the norm on conversation, with おなじき appearing most frequently in formal settings.
I thought surely I wouldn’t say just that in the same way.
From the 更級日記.
(The Emperor) returned to the capital in the winter of that same year.
From the 方丈記.
However, like a standard adjective of the time, 同じ possessed two 連体形, the other one being 同じかる. This form was used with auxiliaries such as ～べし and could not be interchanged with 同じ. In Modern Japanese, 同じかる still survives as 同じくある, but 同じである is more prevalent. This is one source for how 同じ attained adjectival-noun-like properties.
However, because this whole “rich vs. poor” and “strong vs. weak” are what define countries, they would not be the same from the start.
This has been the way since long ago, so the next generation also ought to be the same way.
I’m saying that our attitude should be the same as Christ’s.
Yet, as the adjectival-noun 終止形 of 同じ – 同じだ – was taking hold, the form 同じい could also be witnessed, which then conjugated the same way as adjectives do today. However, these forms did not survive the early 1900s.
Only knowing of one ideology is equal to not knowing what an ideology is.
A famous quote by 西田幾多郎.
Whenever people would simply receive a random favor from someone, they would present the other person rice balls as thanks, knowing that the receiver would be happy for them, and the recipient would then catch tanuki, rabbits, and the like thinking that such things would be sufficient for returning the courtesy, which ultimately was equal to the origin of trade between all the various tribes and races.
From 山の人生 by 柳田国男.
What resulted was the strange dichotomy of adjective and adjective noun conjugations. As for the 終止形, the adjectival noun forms 同じだ・同じです・同じである can all be seen. However, so can 同じ itself, but it is limited to the plain speech register within the main clause. This means inserting a copula is imperative in dependent clauses. As for the 連体形, the irregular form 同じ remained predominant. However, there is the possibility of 同じである functioning as the 連体形 within a participle.
Can you view an equations which have the exact same solution as the same equation?
The price is the same, but the amount is less.
12. 君は僕と同じ｛さ 〇・ださ Ｘ｝！
You’re the same as me!
Grammar Note: The final particle さ cannot follow だ, thus making 同じ the only viable 終止形 in this sentence.
In old-fashioned but highly honorific speech, the form 同じゅうございます may also be found, which derives from the traditional adjectival 連用形 – 同じく – followed by the honorific auxiliary ～ございます. In fact, as we will see later in this lesson, this form is still used adverbially alongside other derived forms.
Speaker A: “I’m terribly sorry!”
Speaker B: “As am I…”
For the remainder of this lesson, we will focus on the forms that are in use today, referencing when necessary the grammatical knowledge that has been discussed thus far.
同じ as the Predicate: Adjectival Noun
When used as the predicate in the main clause or a dependent clause of a sentence, 同じ functions as an adjectival noun. The use of the copula, as stated earlier, is imperative even in plain speech in dependent clauses but does became optional in casual speech so long as it is the main clause.
The results were the same.
Is it not always the same?
It’s the same as Japanese, huh.
It’s the same as yesterday.
Variation Note: In casual speech, 同じ may be pronounced as おんなじ. Also, although the copula is grammatically optional in plain speech in main clauses, that does not mean the feel of the sentence does not change. Because 同じ is still functioning as an adjectival noun, dropping the copula while also adding the final particles よ・わ is indicative of female speech. In male speech, adding さ is the only final particle at one’s disposal with the copula absent. Others like ぜ・ぞ require that だ be present.
Before True Nouns
When placed before a true noun, the 連体形 is 同じ, behaving as a normal adjective minus its appearance.
He wore the same clothes for about a year.
It has almost the same meaning.
20. 僕たちは同じ学校に通っています。(Male Speech)
We go to the same school.
Literally: They are all badgers from the same hole.
They are all birds of a feather.
We were born in the same year.
I’m married to someone of the same age.
Phrase Note: 同い年 is a set phrase meaning “the same age” in which the consonant /j/ is mysteriously ellipsed.
When the grammatical structures ～のだ・ので follow 同じ, it behaves as an adjectival noun. This means that な must intervene as the 連体形. However, when the adnominal の is used to mean “one” as in “the same one” in which it creates a relative pronoun, の directly follows 同じ as the 連体形.
That’s because the sound quality is the same as a CD.
Why is it that the direction of revolution for the planets is the same?
Their clothes are the same, so it’s hard to distinguish them, huh.
It’s ok, look! A seven-colored bridge!
When you’ve shed all your tears, it’s hanging in the sky.
Hey, I’m sure you see it out in the distance.
I see it too; it’s the same as yours.
From 虹 by Aqua Timez
Please give me one the same as this.
The Adverbial Form 同じに
Whenever you encounter 同じに, 同じ function as an adverbial noun, translating as “the same.” What follows will typically be verbs like なる, する, and 見える. Note that this is not the same as 同じように・同じく, which are to be discussed next.
(Their results) ended up the same as our results.
They all look the same.
Is it possible to have one’s registered seal the same as one’s bank transaction seal?
My cram school is now the same as a boy in the same class as me.
The Adverbial Form 同じように
By combining 同じ with ～ようだ and then using the adverbial form of the latter, you get the meaning of “similarly to/just like.” Thus, the addition of ～よう indicates that the thing in question is not actually the same but “similar.”
I made spaghetti like the recipe says.
Do one’s surroundings look the same from a cat’s perspective?
I can’t work like normal people.
Please set the settings like in the past.
The monkeys are playing like they always do.
The Adverbial Form 同じく
The adverbial form 同じく originates from 同じ functioning as a normal adjective. In practical use, it is similar to “ditto to” or “same as” and can be paraphrased as 同じように. It establishes that matter Y is the same as matter X. What makes it different from 同じに is that 同じに is referring to a transformation of X to Y, whereas 同じく are two entities/situations that are the same or are behaving the same.
Ditto (to him), I too am from England.
Same as yesterday, today is also rain.
To make ruts one is to make wheel tracks the same. By extension, it means to take the same path or stance.
Actively work with like-minded coworkers!
The “Sales Department” exists in radio stations just as it does in regular companies.
Honda, who is also in sales, handled the matter.
The Adverbial Form 同じ
When used in conjunction with the particle なら, which creates “if” statements when making suggestions, 同じ becomes an adverb meaning “anyhow” and is interchangeable with どうせ.
Anyhow, if you’re going to buy, it’s best to buy local.
Grammar Note: Verb + ～た方がいい is a grammatical pattern meaning “it’s best to…”
Anyhow, if I’m going to sell it, I want to get at least some profit.
Grammar Note: Verb + ～たい（と思う）is a grammatical pattern meaning “want to…”
Anyhow, if it’s going to cost money, I’d want to build my own house.
The Sino-Japanese Prefix 同～
Sino-Japanese compound words frequently feature the Kanji 同, read with its ON reading ドウ. Most of these words are literary, but some basic vocabulary in the spoken language are formed with it such as the words 同情 (sympathy) and 同意 (agreement).
You agree to the above user agreement.
Yukari’s boyfriend and my husband are undoubtedly the same individual!
We began the experiment similarly to last time.
Please teach me some English homophones.
I sympathize with disaster victims.
Why is it that neighboring countries among Southeast Asian nations have such bad relations?
Comrades, let’s go!
Phrase Note: In Mandarin Chinese, 同志 means “homosexual.” However, in Japanese, it is a somewhat uncommon word meaning “comrade.”
I’m dating someone of the same sex.
I completely agree/feel exactly the same way.
I got into an argument with a foreign colleague.