Dare To: 強いて, 敢えて, 押して, & 達て

第326課: Dare To: 強いて, 敢えて, 押して, & 達て

This lesson is about four adverbs which all translate roughly to “dare to” in the sense of pushing for something to happen. 


The verb 強いる means “to force/compel/coerce.” When its te-form is used adverbially, it may be literary translated as “by force.”  How “dare” comes into the fold is that it is often used when the speaker feels bad about pushing through with an action despite difficulty, resistance, or opposition. 

1. 嫌がる子に強いてやれとは言わない。
I wouldn’t force a kid by telling them to do it.

2. 選手たちにはかなりの負担を強いた。
(The coach) pressed the athletes to bear responsibility quite a bit. 

3. 無理を強いてやってのけた。

(He) managed to pull through by pushing the impossible.

4. 正しいことも強いてやれば強制です。
Even the right thing is coercion if you force it done.

5. 鉄道は、本数が多いバスや航空機に押されて苦戦を強いられている。
Rail has been forced to struggle from being pressured by how many busses and aircrafts there are.

It is most commonly seen in the phrase 強いて言うなら・強いて言えば, which translate to “if I must say.” Of course, any similar verb would be interpreted in much the same way.

6.  特に問題はありませんが、強いて挙げるなら都会より蚊が多いように感じることくらいでしょうか。
There aren’t any particularly problems, but if I had to raise one, it’d just be there being more mosquitos than the city, I feel.

7.  強いて例を挙げるならこんな感じです.
If I had to give an example, it’d be like this.

8. 強いて挙げるならば臣下の浩がおりますが。
If I must say, it would be your retainer Hiroshi…

9. 貴方が強いてと仰れば是を呑んで死ぬばかりでございます。
If you were to be compelled (to command me), I would drink this and die right here, right now.

10.  強いて言えば寒さ対策が大きな課題となっている。
If I must say, handling the cold has become a major issue. 

11. 条件はほとんどございませんが、強いて申し上げますと以下の2点になります。
Although there are hardly any conditions, if I had to mention any, it would be these two points.


Although very similar to 強いて, 敢えて gives the impression that the speaker still dares to go along with doing something. 

12. 大統領を敢えて非難するつもりはないです。
I wouldn’t dare criticize the president.

13. 敢えてもう一度やる覚悟があるのか?
You dare have the courage to try again?

When you are daring to do something, 敢えて is there to also imply that it really isn’t necessary, which makes it different than “deliberately.”

14. 敢えて言うかね?!
You dare say?!

15. 敢えていいますが、〇〇さんが嫌いです。
Dare I say it, I hate ##. 

16. 敢えてもう一度言いましょう。
Dare I say it again.

17. 敢えて言えばかつ丼がおススメかな。
If I had to say, I’d recommend the katsudon, I guess?

It may also be more appropriate to interpret it as showing deliberate action that seems unexpected and/or counterproductive. 

18. 任期を終えた大統領をあえて弾劾する必要があるのかという声も出ている。
There are also voices that are questioning whether it’s even necessary to set out to censure a president who has completed his term. 

Also unlike 強いて, 敢えて can also be synonymous with 必ずしも to mean “not necessarily/particularly.” For this meaning, the verb must be in the negative.

19. テイラー君の日本語が上手だからといって、敢えて驚くにはあたらない。彼の妻も喋れるから。
Just because Taylor’s Japanese is good, it’s nothing to be be particularly surprised about. That’s because his wife also speaks Japanese.

20. 敢えて行くには及ばぬ。(Literary)
It is not particularly worth going to. 

21.  テストの範囲について学生たちにあえて言う必要はない。
It is not particularly necessary to tell your students about the extent of the test.

22. 健康上の理由などからではなく、あえてお酒を飲まない。
It’s not for any health reason; I just don’t particularly drink. 

Sometimes, 敢えて may be more on the lines of 少しも/全く.

23. 世界第一と言うも敢えて過言にあらず。(Literary)
It would not be an exaggeration whatsoever to call it a first in the world.


The te-form of 押す (to push) in the sense of “to compel” may be used adverbially to mean “by compulsion” or “in defiance/spite of.” Its use in this capacity is limited to certain set phrases. 

24. 押してお願いします。
I ask of you in spite of myself.

25. 風邪を押して出かけた甲斐があった。
There was meaning to heading (there) in spite of my cold. 

26. 熱を押して出勤する国、ヨーロッパにもあるのか。
Are there countries even in Europe where people go to work despite of a fever? 

Curriculum Note: See also Lesson 303.


This adverb is used to indicate a sincere desire/request that the speaker knows is unreasonable or difficult to be brought into fruition. This is how it may take on the meaning of “dare,” but translating into English becomes more circumstantial when it is used to make a 

Orthography Note: This adverb is usually written in Hiragana.

27. たってのお願いです。
This is my strong wish (which I know may be hard to make happen).

28. たって言おうなら・・・ (Stiff literary tone)
If I dare push myself to speak of it…

29. たってほしいというのではない。
It’s not that I desire it no matter what.