第381課: The Particle つ
The particle つ has been greatly reduced to hardly nothing in Modern Japanese, but it holds on it certain cases that this lesson will discuss.
The Case Particle つ
The attributive case particle つ follows nominals to indicate the possessive and survives in few words such as 目毛・睫（まつげ） “eyelash”. If you pay attention really closely to how this is actually used, you’ll see that this particle seems to have a locative function as well.
A takitsuse is a place where the current of a river is violent.
Winds of heaven
Long fall rain
6b. 夏の終わり （Modern)
The end of summer
7. 上枝・秀つ枝 (A 雅語)
Word Note: This last example is read as ほつえ. The opposite is 下枝, which although is normally read as したえだ should be read as しずえ as the true antonym. The ず is ultimately the particle つ.
The day before yesterday
Word Note: In more standard Japanese, the last word becomes おととい. おとつい comes from a sound change of the Classical Japanese phrase 遠つ日.
Moreover, he was a beautiful, splendid man that she could never see with the likes of Toyoashihara no Nakatsukuni, though he was young and bright like the heavenly sun in addition to the chivalry in his eyebrows which foretold sorrow and grief.
From 獅子・孔雀 by 三島由紀夫.
Word Note: 中国 is another example of this particle although it’s in a name.
No calamitous day could have the power to cut down our tree of love.
From 獅子・孔雀 by 三島由紀夫.
The Conjunctive Particle つ
The conjunctive particle つ shows two repetitive actions. It is normally only seen in set expressions.
11b. 彼は行き来しながら待った。（More modern)
He waited while walking to and fro.
To take a good look at something.
13b. 彼はあれやこれや思案する嫌いがある。（More common）
He has the tendency to ponder over this and that.
In Chikao’s dreams it was always a cat chase with his father, and it was either him or his father being killed.
From 獅子 by 三島由紀夫.
Floating up and down
Oyone was still stretching and crouching in her bed.
From 門 by 夏目漱石.
Derivation Note: のつそっつ is a contraction of のっつそっつ, which is a contraction of のりつ反りつ.
Locked in a grapple
Derivation Note: The previous expression comes from a sound change of 組みつ解れつ.
The Similar ～み～み
～み can also be seen in the pattern “連用形 of verb + ～み + verb with ～ず + ～み” to show two actions or conditions were being repeated in alternation. This, too, is an archaism.
18. 降りみ降らずみ (古語)
From raining to not raining